Clifford Shull, Andrew Victor( American biophysicist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with R. Giymenom and R. Jallow) 1977.)
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Biography Clifford Shull, Andrew Victor
Clifford Shull, ANDREW VICTOR (Schally, Andrew) (p. 1926), American biophysicist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (jointly with R. Giymenom and R. Jallow) 1977.
Born November 30, 1926 in Vilna, Poland (now Vilnius), the son of a professional military. After the Second World War Schally father was drafted into the army. Family Schally survived the occupation, miraculously saved from the Holocaust. By the end of the war the boy spoke several languages, including Romanian, Italian, understood a little German and in Russian.
In 1945 the family moved to Britain and then to Scotland. In 1946 he received a diploma from high school and went to London to study chemistry at the University of London. After graduation he joined the National Institute for Medical Research in Mill Hill (London). He was lucky to work with such renowned scientists as Dr. DF Elliott, Sir Charles Harrington, Dr. R. Porter and others. Some of his colleagues subsequently became Nobel laureates in chemistry and in physiology or medicine. For two and a half years of work at the institute, he learned not only carefully to experiment, but an idea of the philosophical aspects of scientific research, have learned to systematize the data obtained.
In May 1952 Schally moved to Montreal (Canada), where he had the opportunity to work while studying at McGill University. He is studying endocrinology under the supervision of Professor D. L. Thomson, works in the laboratory of experimental therapy Allenovskogo Memorial Institute of Psychiatry, headed by Dr. RA Klegorna. The main topic of scientific research were the adrenal glands, pituitary and adrenal glands secreted adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Endocrinology is the science of the structure and function of endocrine glands (the endocrine glands) produced by their hormones, their ways of education and action on the organism of animals and humans. For the first time the concept of organ or gland, with internal secretion formulated in 1830, German physician and naturalist J. P. Muller. And in the 19., Once described the diseases associated with damage to some endocrine glands, endocrinology emerged as a scientific discipline.
In 1954, Schally became interested in the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus - Department of the medulla oblongata, the place of interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems, the main coordinating and regulating center of the autonomic nervous system. From the activities of the hypothalamus is dependent regulation of homeostasis (homeostasis of the body's ability to resist change and maintain during the life of the relative constancy of the composition and properties) and the function of reproduction. The hypothalamus is formed by the accumulation of neuro-secretory cells and a large number of nerve pathways that connect it to the central nervous system. The hypothalamus controls the concentration of metabolites and hormones in the blood
. In 1955, Schally, together with Dr. M. Saffranom demonstrated the presence of hypothalamic hormones, . which they called corticotropin-releasing factor (KRB) in tissue extracts of the hypothalamus (at present this hormone called corticotropin-releasing-hormone),
Even in the 30 20 in. English physiologist Dzh.Harris section is made of portal vessels and found that this reduced secretion of pituitary. Pituitary endocrine gland, reddish-brown color, located at the base of the brain, the pituitary hormones are: tropic hormones, growth hormone, and vasopressin. Harris suggested that the pituitary is regulated by blood-borne chemical hormones allocated hypothalamus. Experiments Schally were the first experimental confirmation of the hypothesis Harris. The results of this work Schally formalized in a doctoral dissertation. In May 1957 he received his doctorate from McGill University. In September of that year he was offered the post of assistant professor of physiology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston (Texas). It was his acquaintance with Roger Giymenom. Later in his autobiography, Schally recalled years at Baylor, as 'years of frustration'. For a long time he could not distinguish KRB in a quantity sufficient to determine its chemical structure. Results were not so long that many scientists were skeptical of research Schally. But in 1961 he was lucky to spend a month at the Institute of Biochemistry in Uppsala, where he met with understanding and support from such eminent scientists as Dr. Dzh.Porat and Dr. V. Mutt.
In 1962, Schally became a U.S. citizen. In the same year on the initiative of Dr. Joe Meyer of the laboratory of endocrinology and polypeptides in the Veterans Administration Hospital in New Orleans (Louisiana). Schally was invited to lead this laboratory. Working on the basis of the clinic, . he became interested in reproductive endocrinology, . particularly, . the influence of steroids on the processes reproduktsii.V 1966 a group of scientists led by Schally were the first distinguish hypothalamic hormone, . called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) (currently thyrotropin-releasing-hormone),
. Also, they found that the TRF is composed of three amino acids. Schally, however, did not immediately appreciated the importance of self-discovery, as he and his team were totally absorbed studies gonadotropin. However, in 1969 R. Guillemin, and R. Bargas announced the opening of the three amino acids in the TRF. Schally also continued his research gonadotropin (currently gonadotropin-releasing-hormone; GRG). Gonadotrophins hormones, leading to the release from the ovaries and testes, respectively, male and female sex hormones. In 1971 they were able to determine the chemical structure of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone. Was found that GRG is a peptide of 10 amino acids. This allowed the synthesis of chemical analogs of GRG. Some of the synthesized analogues stimulates secretion of pituitary gonadotropin, which allows their use in the treatment of infertility. Others, however, impede the allocation of gonadotropins, which allows us to consider them as a promising means of contraception,. Schally reported the results of their research at a meeting of the endocrine society.
In addition to research GRG, he also worked on the release of somatotropin-releasing factor (SRF). In 1973, this factor was isolated group of researchers led by R. Guillemin and Schally in 1976 identified the chemical structure of factor. Guillemin gave a new hormone called somatostatin. The research showed that hormone (and particularly its synthetic analogs) may be used for the treatment of diabetes, peptic ulcer disease and acromegaly, characterized by excess growth hormone.
In 1977, Andrew Schally (with R. Giymenom and R. Jallow) won the Nobel Prize 'for their discoveries concerning the development of peptide hormones by the brain'
. Among other awards Dr. Schally: Prize Charles Michael, University of Toronto, . International Award Gardner Fund (1974), . Borden Award for Medical Research Association of American Medical Colleges and the Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1975),
He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the American Society of Biochemistry, American Physiological Society.