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Nikolai Markovich Emanuel

( Russian physical chemist)

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Biography Nikolai Markovich Emanuel
Emanuel, Nikolai Markovich (1915-1984), Russian physical chemist. Born on September 18 (1 October) 1915 in the village. Tim (now the Kursk region).. In 1930-1932 he studied in Leningrad at the school with focus on chemistry and the manufacturing plant of the school. Mendeleev worked as a laboratory at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. This institution, . created on the initiative of Academician AF Ioffe, . was closely associated with the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, . especially with his well-known physical-technical faculty, . who prepared a new type of researchers - physicists, engineers, generalists,
. It is this faculty Emanuel joined in 1933. In 1938 graduate studies at the Leningrad Institute of Chemical Physics, where he became head of NN Semenov. In 1941, just after the start of the war, was sent to active duty in November 1941 and was discharged for participation in scientific papers on defense subjects and returned to the Institute, who was evacuated to Kazan. In 1942 he defended his thesis and was kept in the same institute (which in 1944 was transferred to Moscow), where he worked until the end of life. He taught at Moscow State University (from 1944; since 1950 - professor). In 1949 he defended his doctoral dissertation. In 1958 became a corresponding member, and in 1966 - a member of the Academy of Sciences.
Problems of kinetics and mechanism of chemical reactions Emanuel started as a student: the topic of his thesis was a study of the kinetics of slow degenerate-branched chain reaction of oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. Then the object of his research was the process in more complex chemical systems and the transformation of molecules more complex structure, in particular the gas-phase oxidation of aldehydes. For a series of works devoted to this subject, Emanuel was awarded the 1948 Prize. Bakh. The next step towards more complex chemical systems have been studies on the reactions of gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons and other organic substances. The most important point in this cycle was the idea of new principles of regulation of the complex (multistage) processes by changing the conditions of their occurrence (temperature, pressure, composition, introduction of catalysts and inhibitors) along the process.

After 1954 Emanuel engaged in the research of the kinetics and mechanism of chain reactions of oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase. He and his collaborators examined the mechanisms of action of various inhibitors, . homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, the complex chain reactions, . found original ways of using the oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons and other organic substances in the petrochemical, . proposed a new principle of transfer of gas-phase reactions in the regime of low-temperature liquid-phase oxidation, . that enhanced the yield of valuable products,
. In particular, Emanuel has developed a process of oxidation of butane at temperatures and pressures close to critical, for acetic acid, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate. Being engaged in the study of the effect of inhibitors, he developed the theory of this process, practical application (slowing aging lubricant and combustible materials, damage to fats, drugs, etc.).

Another important series of works of Emanuel - a study of processes of destruction and stabilization of polymers at the molecular level. In this area, he proposed methods for testing various stabilizers, quantitative criteria for stability of the polymer to the destruction.

Since the late 1950's in the lab Emanuel conducted in the field of the kinetics of biological processes, in particular of Clinical Oncology, were obtained evaluating the effectiveness of various anticancer drugs. In 1976-1978 it was discovered the phenomenon of the intensification of free radical processes in the initial stage of tumor development, . proposed a number of anticancer drugs, . investigated the role of free radicals in radiation damage, . found a protective effect of inhibitors of free radical reactions,
.

Emanuel was a member of academies of sciences of many countries (USA, Sweden, East Germany, Hungary, etc.), has been awarded orders and medals. Lenin Prize laureate 1958, the State Prize 1983.

Emanuel died in Moscow on December 8, 1984.


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Nikolai Markovich Emanuel, photo, biography
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