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( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993)

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Biography MALLIS Carey
MALLIS, CARY (Mullis, Kary) (p. 1944) (USA). Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993 (with M. Smith).
Born on December 28 in g. Lenoir (North Carolina) Parents - farmer Sesil Banks Mallis and her mother - Bernice Alberta (nee Fredericks). The family lived near the farm my grandfather. Grandpa milked cows and fed the neighbors of dairy products. As a child Mallis wizard and ran home-made rockets, experimenting with chemicals.

After graduating from high school attended Georgia Institute of Technology, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1966. This was followed by a doctorate in biochemistry at the University of California at Berkeley in 1972, where he taught biochemistry to 1973.

In his youth, but seriously interested in mathematics, chemistry and physics. As a graduate student of biochemistry, after attending lectures in astrophysics, he has published in prestigious scientific journal 'Nature' article 'Cosmological implications of time reversal'.

In 1973 became a postdoctoral students in pediatric cardiology of the University of Kansas School of Medicine on issues related to vascular physiology of the lungs. In 1977 to 1979 he worked in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry at the University of California at San Francisco.

In 1979 he started work in the company 'Setus' in Emerville (California) as a biochemist, a specialist in the field of DNA. He was engaged in the synthesis of oligonucleotides and as a result invented the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the basic concept which is developed by 1983

. The method includes four components: a segment of the DNA double helix, . called a Template DNA, . be copied, . Two oligonucleotide primers (short stretches of single-stranded DNA, . each of which is complementary to one of the short sequences of DNA of a Template), . nucleotides - the chemical building blocks, . from which the DNA molecule is constructed, . and the enzyme polymerase, . that copies the template DNA, . attaching thereto free nucleotides in the correct sequence,

These ingredients are heated, which causes the separation of the double helix of DNA on a Template individual spirals. The mixture is cooled to primers in contact with complementary ends of the segments template chains. Then polymerase starts copying template segments joining nucleotides on one end of the primers, and eventually producing a double helix of DNA.

Repetition of the cycle increases the amount of DNA exponentially: every 30 cycles, which takes a few minutes, give more than a billion copies of the original DNA sequence.

In August 1984, Mallis announced his idea at a seminar company, but colleagues have received her care. The only person who supported his idea, was the founder of the firm 'Bioserch', produces machines for the automatic synthesis of oligonucleotides.

The first version of the article Mallisa and co-authors of PCR editors of 'Science' rejected. Still, he has published articles in 'Science' (1985), and in 'Nature' (1986). A PCR method has spread rapidly in the practice.

PCR is one of the fundamental scientific technology 20 in. It allows only a few hours to transfer genetic material into microgram suitable for follow-up studies of substance. The method is widely used in medicine, genetics, biotechnology, forensic science, etc..

For example, in medical diagnosis, you can quickly identify the source of bacterial or viral infection directly from a small sample of genetic material. PCR is used to examine patients with hereditary diseases. Biologists have used PCR for genetic analysis of fossil remains. Such were the basis of a new scientific discipline - Palaeobiology.

Mallis In 1986 he became the leader in molecular biology in the company 'Ksitroniks' in San Diego, California, where his work was related to DNA technology and photochemistry. In 1987 - a consultant more than a dozen corporations, including 'Itsmen Kodak', 'Ebbots lebs', etc..

In 1993, Mallis received the Nobel Prize 'for his contribution to the development of methods of chemistry based on DNA - for the invention of polymerase chain reaction'.

He owns several patents, including inventions relating to PCR technology for light-sensitive plastics that change color when light.

He wrote and published an autobiography in 1998 Dance without covers in the field of mind. He considers himself a writer. From time to time performs with eccentric ideas: the need to legalize the sale of soft drugs, that Americans were not on the Moon, . and the corresponding episode filmed and assembled in Hollywood, that AIDS, . as a single disease is not, . simply people crowded passive until then viruses, etc.,

Works vice president of the firm 'Bersteyn teknoldzhis' in Irvine, California. This company specializes in improving the e-diagnostics technology based on optical disks.

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