Mitscherlich Eydhard( German chemist, one of the first physical chemist who discovered the phenomenon of isomorphism)
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Biography Mitscherlich Eydhard
Mitscherlich, Eilhard (Mitscherlich, Eilhard) (1794-1863), German chemist, one of the first physical chemist who discovered the phenomenon of isomorphism. Born January 7, 1794 in the family pastor of a small village in northern Germany Neyende. In 1811-1813 he studied at Heidelberg and the University of Paris, where he studied history and culture of the East. In 1814 he became a doctor of philosophy. Intended to go to the East of the diplomatic mission of Napoleon, but changed plans, deciding to study at Gottingen University medicine and science. Engaged in chemistry under the guidance of Professor F. Shtromeyera, in 1818 gained a place in the laboratory of Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy S. Germbshtedta in Berlin, where he began studying arsenates and phosphates. In the course of these studies Mitscherlich in 1819 discovered the phenomenon of isomorphism to find that 'equal to the number of atoms, if they are connected in the same way, inherent in the same crystalline form'. According to this law, the two compounds can form mixed crystals (isomorphous mixtures), only when they have a similar composition. Conversely, if there is an isomorphous mixture, one can conclude that co-crystallized substances have the same composition. Based on the fact that the masses of isomorphous compounds are correlated with each other, as the masses of the elements of which they consist, Mitscherlich created a method for determining atomic weights based on the results of the analysis of substances. However, set in the same year, Dulong and Petit rule of constancy of the atomic heats are allowed Berzelius as closely as possible to determine the atomic weights of elements in the solid state and create conditions for organizing elements.
In 1822, Mitscherlich was the position of professor of chemistry at the University of Berlin. Here he continued his study of isomorphism, and discovered the phenomenon of polymorphism - the ability of the same substances crystallize in different forms. Mitscherlich demonstrated this phenomenon on the example of sulfur, crystallizing in the orthorhombic and monoclinic forms.
From the works Micherliha in the field of organic chemistry was of great importance receipt diethyl ether from ethanol (1834). He had developed a method of continuous production of this substance and suggested a 'contact' participation in it of sulfuric acid (the term 'catalysis' was introduced for such cases Berzelius later, in 1836). In addition, Mitscherlich was benzene distillation of calcium benzoate, nitrobenzene and other synthesized derivatives of benzene, laying the foundation for industrial production of dyes.
Mitscherlich was an outstanding teacher and has done a lot for the organization of chemical education in Prussia.
Mitscherlich died in Berlin on Aug. 28, 1863.