LAURENT Auguste( French organic chemist, creator of 'theory of nuclei')
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Biography LAURENT Auguste
Laurent, Auguste (Laurent, Auguste) (1807-1853), French organic chemist, creator of 'theory of nuclei', on which was built by one of the systems of classification of organic compounds.
Born November 14, 1807 in La Folie. In 1830 he graduated from the Paris Mountain Institute, in 1830-1831 worked as assistant to Jean Dumas at the Central School of Arts and Crafts in Paris in 1832-1837 - in the laboratory of the Sevres porcelain factory, the perfume factory in Paris. In 1837 received his Ph.D. in the following year became Professor of Chemistry, University of Bordeaux. In 1846-1847 he worked in the Ecole Normale SupцLrieure in Paris, in 1848 gained a place at the chemist Mint.
Working in the laboratory Dumas, Laurent began exploring the properties of products of substitution of different compounds in comparison with the properties of precursors. In particular, he conducted the chlorination of naphthalene, ethylene and other hydrocarbons, and came to the conclusion that maintaining the chemical structure of compounds in reactions of substitution of hydrogen chloride. This provision is consistent with the theory of substitution Dumas, was part of a more general 'theory of nuclei', first formulated in 1836 by Laurent. In his view, organic matter derived from the basic 'radicals' (nuclei) that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms in simple atomic relations by substitution of hydrogen or other elements of the atomic groups. All derivatives of the radicals of one basic radical, should have the same number of atoms as the main radical, and belong to the same type (number). In his 'theory of nuclei' Laurent first suggested, . that all organic compounds reducible to hydrocarbons, . and on the basis of this proposed system of classification of organic substances, . originating from the 'typical' of hydrocarbons by the substitution or joining other atoms or molecules,
. This 'unitary' system does not meet with sympathy famous chemists of the time - Berzelius and Liebig, . supporters of the idea of 'duality', . who believed, . that every chemical compound is a combination of 'electro-' and 'electronic active' components, . but met with understanding from another French chemist, . C. Gerard, . author of a new 'theory of types',
. Views Laurent and Gerard were so close that in the historical essays of their names as creators of this theory are next
. Laurent belongs to a large number of works on organic chemistry: he studied the naphthalene and received chloro -, . nitro and sulfur, . opened phthalic acid, . studied fat oxidation with nitric acid, . investigated anthracene from coal tar, . phenol and its derivatives, etc.,
Another merit of Laurent was that he, like Gerard, one of the first came to realize the need to clearly distinguish the concepts of atoms, molecules and equivalents, which contributed to the revival of the law Avogadro. Even after the scientist's death was published work "The method of chemistry" (Mthode de chimie, 1854), which set out his ideas about molecules, atoms, the structure of organic compounds.
Laurent died in Paris on April 15, 1853.