Onnes Heike( Nederlands physicist and chemist, awarded in 1913 Nobel Prize in physics for investigation of the properties of substances at low temperatures.)
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Biography Onnes Heike
Onnes, Heike (Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike) (1853-1926), Netherlands physicist and chemist, awarded in 1913 Nobel Prize in physics for investigation of the properties of substances at low temperatures. Born September 21, 1853 in Groningen,. He graduated from Groningen University (1876), trained at the University of Heidelberg by R. Bunsen and G. Kirchhoff. In 1879 he received his Ph.D.. From 1882 to 1924 - Professor of Experimental Physics, Leiden University.
Starting to work in Leiden in a small laboratory, Kamerlingh Onnes in a few years it has reorganized and built a high-performance installation for the liquefaction of ethylene, oxygen, nitrogen and air. In 1906 received the liquid hydrogen, in 1908 - liquid helium. In 1909 he reached a temperature of only 1 б¦ higher than absolute zero. In 1911-1913 discovered the phenomenon of superconductivity of mercury, then tin, lead, thallium and other elements at the temperature of liquid helium. In 1913, discovered the disappearance of superconductivity under the influence of strong magnetic fields and currents. In 1924, illustrating the appearance of undamped current in the ring of the two contacting superconductors. Suggested the use of the winding of superconducting materials to create powerful magnetic fields. Onnes also carried out thermodynamic studies, in particular, a diagram of free energy for binary mixtures, investigated the state of one-and diatomic gases and liquids at low temperatures.
Onnes died in Leiden, 21 February 1926.