ZEVAYL Ahmed( Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999)
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Biography ZEVAYL Ahmed
ZEVAYL, AHMED (Zewail, Ahmed) (p. 1946), winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999 for the study of transition states that occur during chemical reactions using femtosecond technology.
Zevayl born February 26, 1946 in Alexandria (Egypt). After graduating from the University of Alexandria, continued his studies in the U.S.. In 1974 received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. As a scholar of the company IBM, worked for two years at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1976 was hired at the California Institute of Technology, in 1982 became professor of the Institute. In 1990 he was elected chair of chemical physics, which he headed until Linus Pauling. He was also head of the Laboratory of Molecular Physics, National Science Foundation.
In the 1980's Zevayl constructed the fastest in the world the camera crew, which allowed to obtain 'fingerprints' of molecules, using laser pulses of tens of femtoseconds (1 fs = 10-15 s). That is the time scale, . in which chemical reactions, . and it is in such a temporal resolution can 'stop a moment' and to trace, . as converging molecule, . reacts, . a transitional form complexes, . and then - the products of reaction, . ie,
. new connections.
Femtosecond techniques are widely used throughout the world. Recently they are increasingly being used to monitor chemical reactions in polymers, which is very important for creating new materials for microelectronics. Using these methods, we can explore mechanisms of subtle biological processes, such as ultra-fast transformation of complex, which undergoes a molecule of rhodopsin - the pigment of the retina responsible for the perception of light.
Zevayl - Honorary Doctor of six world-renowned universities. He was awarded many prizes, including premium Carl Zeiss, Hoechst Prize, Prize for Chemistry, Yale University. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, . American Academy of Arts and Sciences, . American Philosophical Society, . Academy of Sciences, Italy, . Academy of Arts of Egypt, . Arts Academy, . sciences and humanities France, . American Physical Society, . Academy of Sciences of the Vatican,
. In 1995 Zevayl was awarded the Egyptian Order of Merit First Class.