DöTbereiner, Johann Wolfgang( German chemist)
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Biography DöTbereiner, Johann Wolfgang
DöTbereiner, Johann Wolfgang (Dbereiner, Johann Wolfgang) (1780-1849), German chemist. Born December 15, 1780 in the Bavarian town of Hof in the family of cab. Poverty of the family did not allow him to receive secondary education, so DöTbereiner worked independently and rarely took lessons at the parsonage. Passed examinations for the post of assistant pharmacist. To be eligible charge of the pharmacy, in 1800-1803 he studied natural sciences in Strasbourg. However, returning to Germany, was unable to carry out their plans: this was prevented by lack of funds and departmental rules pharmacists. Not succeeded and attempts to organize the production of chemicals and their sale, as well as to establish an educational institution to prepare chemical technologists. Cause helped numerous publications DöTbereiner on improving ways to obtain various substances. The works were seen by specialists, and in 1810 he was invited to the University of Jena.
DöTbereiner is primarily known for his studies of properties of metals and their oxides, as well as the regularities in the change of properties of elements. In 1821 he managed to get an acetic acid oxidation of ethyl alcohol in the presence of platinum, in 1823 DöTbereiner reported ignited hydrogen jet directed at the spongy platinum. In the course of both reactions platinum itself does not change. These works, along with investigations of Davie laid the foundations of the catalytic chemistry with the use of platinum - the section of chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis is now called.
DöTbereiner taken the first attempts to classify elements. The scientist said that if there are three chemical elements in ascending order of their atomic masses, the atomic weight of the average member of this trio will be equal to the arithmetic average of the masses of extreme members. In 1817, DöTbereiner found a pattern for the first 'triad' - alkaline earth metals calcium, strontium and barium, and in 1829, having received confirmation of their data Berzelius - for lithium, sodium, potassium and sulfur, selenium, tellurium. The classification is based, in addition to the atomic masses, he put an analogy to the properties and characteristic features of elements and their compounds. Works DöTbereiner to systematize the elements was not initially attracted the. Only in 1840 L. Gmelin, expanding the list of items, showed that the nature of their classification on properties much more complex than the division of the triad.
DöTbereiner was not only a scientist but also an outstanding chemical engineer. He studied the processes of dyeing fabrics, organized starch and syrup production, studied the chemical basis of fermentation, etc.. Searched DöTbereiner means of oxidation of ethyl alcohol in ethanol (acetic) acid, found application in industrial production of this product. To facilitate the dissemination of chemical knowledge, he has organized in Jena practical workshops in chemistry, and then - the systematic laboratory studies.
DöTbereiner died in Jena, March 24, 1849.