Humphry Davy( English physicist and chemist)
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Biography Humphry Davy
Davy, Humphry (Davy, Humphry) (1778-1829), English physicist and chemist. Born December 17, 1778 in Penzance (Cornwall). At school he studied mediocre and was given in training to pharmacist. Educate ourselves to compile his own ambitious plans. At the age of 17 made the first discovery: getting the heat from the friction of two pieces of ice, came to the conclusion that the heat - this is a special kind of motion. Research Davie attracted the attention of the famous mathematician D. Hilbert, with the support of which the young scientist was in 1798 in place of a chemist in Bristol Pneumatic Institute. Engaged in the study of gases (nitrous oxide, hydrogen, methane) per person, and in 1799 opened the exciting ( 'exhilarating'), and then anesthetic effect of nitrous oxide. In 1801 Davy was invited to the Royal Institute, where he worked as an assistant B. Rumford, in 1802 became professor of chemistry. For 10 years conducted research on the application of chemistry in agriculture and tanning industry. He read lectures on agricultural chemistry have been published in book form, which served as a textbook in the discipline over 50 years.
The greatest success Davey reached in electrochemistry. His first work in this area were devoted to studying the effects of electric current on the chemical compounds. Davy showed that electric current causes the decomposition (electrolysis) acids and salts. In 1807, using the largest at the time 'Voltaic pile', has received two new elements by electrolysis of molten compounds - metallic potassium and sodium. In 1808 the same way were obtained four metals: barium, calcium, strontium and magnesium, and then separated from the boric acid boron. Davy owned research enabled us to establish the nature of chlorine and iodine, and he also tried to obtain pure fluorine and other halogens. These studies led him to create the hydrogen theory of acids, refutes Lavoisier, that each acid contains oxygen.
In 1810 Davy, using a powerful electric battery of 2 thousand. galvanic cells, received an electric arc between two carbon rods connected to the poles of the battery (later called the arc volt). In 1815, together with Michael Faraday invented the Davy lamp safe; for this invention was awarded the Rumford Medal B..
In 1803 Davy was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, in 1820-1827 he was president.
Davy died in Geneva on 29 May 1829.