Vincent du Vigneaud( American biochemist, awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
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Biography Vincent du Vigneaud
Du Vigneaud, Vincent (Du Vigneaud, Vincent) (1901-1978), American biochemist, awarded the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the synthesis of polypeptide hormones posterior pituitary - vasopressin and oxytocin. Born May 18, 1901 in Chicago. He graduated from the University of Illinois Medical School and the University of Rochester. He worked in the laboratories of the company 'Dupont' (1924-1925), in medical school at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and the University of Rochester, University of Edinburgh, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry, University of Illinois (1929-1932). In 1932-1938 headed the Department of Biochemistry, Medical School University Dzh.Vashingtona in St. Louis, and in 1938-1967 - Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Cornell University, from 1967 to 1975 - Professor of the University.
The main work of du Vigneaud devoted to the chemistry of hormones, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acid metabolism. In 1922 he first studied the sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, methionine, and others) showed that methionine is a source of methyl groups in the body, but in certain circumstances, indispensable to his life and acts as a vitamin. Opened the vitamin H (biotin), deciphered its structure and showed that the sulfur-containing compound is necessary for the fission yeast cell. A method of phase hydrolysis, . deciphered with the help of the structure of hormones oxytocin (1932), . causes uterine contractions and milk secretion, . and vasopressin (1953), . acting on the walls of blood vessels and raise blood pressure,
. Showed that each of these hormones is composed of eight amino acids: five of them form a chain, and three are attached to the ring as a 'tail', so the whole polypeptide chain is laid in the form of figure 9. In 1932 the synthesis of oxytocin (this was the first synthesis of the polypeptide hormone), and in 1952 received it in crystalline form and determined the amino acid sequence.
Du Vigneaud also studied the chemical structure of insulin, has developed methods of synthesis, purification and selection of antibiotics (especially penicillin), studied the structure of the B vitamins.
He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (since 1948), honorary professor at New York (1955), Illinois (1960), Rochester (1965) and Washington (1968) universities.
Died du Vigneaud in White Plains (pc. New York) 11 December 1978.