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GARDEN Arthur

( Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929)

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Biography GARDEN Arthur
Garda, ARTHUR (Harden, Arthur), (1865-1940). Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929 (jointly with H.Eyler-Chelpin).
Usually there are two ways of becoming a scientist. One way - the rapid development of the researcher, obtaining fundamental results, generalization of their achievements, teaching, building its own schools, etc.. Another way is consistent years of systematic work, which eventually leads researchers to the discovery or creation of the theory, research direction, etc.. Example Gardena presents us with a rare third way. Up to 35 years, he engaged in teaching, . writing a textbook "Practical Organic Chemistry and historical research (in particular, . with the known inorganic Henry Enfield Roscoe (1833-1915) published the works of John Dalton), . and then commented on them in a separate book),
. Suddenly Garden abruptly changed his scientific career and became the experimenter-biochemist.

October 12, 1865 in Manchester (UK) and was the third of nine children and only son of businessman Albert Tayesa Gardena and Elsa McAllister. His parents were sectarians, and because Garden was raised in an atmosphere of Puritan. After completion of primary education in school 'Victoria Park' in Manchester, he joined in 1877 in Tattenholl College in Staffordshire, which he graduated four years. Then went to Owens College at Manchester University and in 1885, excellent passing exams, received a bachelor's degree in chemistry

. The following year he was awarded a scholarship, . which he used to complete the training in Germany in 1887-1888 Philippe Otto Fischer (Philipp Otto Fischer, . 1852-1932), . (known chemist, . cousin of the great E. Fischer), University of Erlangen,
. Under his leadership, in 1888 he defended his thesis on the properties of organic matter nitrozonaftilamina.

In the same year the Garden became a lecturer at the rate of chemistry at Manchester University, where he remained until 1895. In 1895-1897 he - the director of the Technical Institute and at the same time the inspector of the Department of Science and Art of the South Kingston.

In 1897 Garden invited chemist in Dzhennerovsky (later Listerovsky) Institute of Preventive Medicine in London. Initially, he taught chemistry and microbiology and was interested in the history of science. At the end of 1890 showed a special interest in the fermentation initiated by certain bacteria, and, since 1899, has published several articles on this topic.

In 1896, E. Buchner (Nobel Prize, 1907) showed that the liquid is separated from the yeast causes fermentation, although the liquid does not contain live yeast cells. Moreover, Buchner demonstrated that one component of the extract, an enzyme which he called Zymase, splits the sucrose molecule into fragments. Some researchers still believed that the unrest is due to the impact of the mysterious 'vital force' in the living cell, but by 1904 for the Garden, it became apparent that the fermentation - a combination of chemical processes. To confirm his hypothesis, he received medication Zymase and filter it under high pressure through a porous porcelain soaked gelatin. He discovered that the enzyme zymase consists of two components, one of which passes through a filter, and the other - no. Garden also found that the fermentation stops when he removes some components from yeast extract. This was the first proof that for the effective functioning of one component of the enzyme requires the presence of the second. He left the name 'zymase' for one component and another component, or coenzyme began calling kozimazoy. Later he discovered that zymase is a protein, while kozimaza is a substance non-protein nature.

In 1905 the Garden has made its second discovery: the fermentation process requires a phosphate-ion. He noted that the decay rate of a molecule of sucrose (composed of two hexose residues of carbohydrate - glucose and fructose) and the formation of carbon dioxide and alcohol over time, slowly falls. However, when he added in a solution of phosphate, the rate of fermentation increased sharply. Based on these observations, Garden, concluded that phosphate ions are associated with molecules of sucrose, creating conditions for the induction of enzymatic fermentation. Moreover, he found that the phosphate ions as a result of a complex chain of transformations remains free after the completion of fermentation.

Garden hypothesized that fermentation occurs only when two molecules of phosphate interact with two molecules of hexose (this corresponds to one molecule of sucrose) with the formation of a derivative, which he called zymo-diphosphate.

Understanding the importance and relevance of his work led to the fact that the Garden in 1906 was invited to direct biochemical Faculty Listerovskogo Institute. 5 years later he became an honorary professor of biochemistry, University of London, as both a director of the Institute Listerovskogo.

In 1913 the Garden began with William Meddok Bayliss (William Maddock Bayliss, 1860-1924) founder of the 'biochemical journal', in which he worked for 26 years.

Except for the period from 1914 to 1918, when the Garden was engaged in military research on the chemistry of known water-soluble vitamins, all the time he gave the study of the fermentation process.

In 1929, Garden in conjunction with Euler-Chelpin was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for the study of fermentation of sugar fermentation and enzymes'.

In a speech at the presentation of the winners of the Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry X. G. Sederbaum (HGSцTderbaum) called the learning process of fermentation 'one of the most complex and difficult problems of chemistry'. 'The interest of specialists to study the mechanisms of complex reactions of fermentation of sugar, - concluded Sederbaum - led to important conclusions about the main ways of carbohydrate metabolism of plants and animals'.

Works Gardena and Euler-Chelpin the participation of phosphate ions in the fermentation process made fundamental contributions to the study of the phenomenon, which is called metabolism, in the study of compounds formed during chemical reactions in living organism. Fundamental role of phosphorylation in metabolism, the nature of key molecules that take part in them, and the mechanism of their action had yet to find.

Studying the fermentation of sucrose provided a model for subsequent experimenters studied the decay of plant carbohydrates and muscle man. Formed approach to the future analysis of enzyme-substrate interactions, to elucidate the role of enzymes and coenzymes in enzymatic processes.

The following year, after receiving the Nobel Prize Garden, resigned from his post as director of Listerovskogo Institute and the next 10 years fully dedicated scientific activities.

On views and life outside the Garden of science, little is known. According to people who knew him, 'Garden, as experimenters have characterized the accuracy of observation, clarity of thought, the ability to dispassionately analyze the results of the experiment and assess their significance'. He was meticulous, tend to respect the traditions that did not prevent him to get involved in skating and golf.

Died June 17, 1940 at his home in Bourne End (county Bekingemshir) due to progress in a few years of nervous breakdown.


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