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Heinrich Otto Wieland

( Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1927.)

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Biography Heinrich Otto Wieland
Wieland, Heinrich Otto (Wieland, Heinrich Otto) (1877-1957). Germany, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1927.

Born June 4, 1877 in Pforzheim (Germany), the son of a pharmacist Theodor W. Wieland and Eliza Bloom. Received his secondary education at a local school, he studied chemistry at the universities of Munich, Berlin and Stuttgart.

In 1901, University of Munich, he was awarded a doctoral degree, he then worked as a lecturer, and in 1909 became an associate professor. Four years later he was appointed professor at Technical University of Munich.

During the First World War, from 1917 to 1918 he worked at F. Haber (Nobel Prize 1918) at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Kaiser Wilhelm in Berlin, where he participated in the production of chemical weapons.

After the war he returned to the Technical University of Munich to its previous position he occupied until 1921, after which for three years he worked at the University of Freiburg. In 1924 Wieland again in the Technical University of Munich, but now in the position of Head of Department of Organic Chemistry and Laboratory Director named Adolf von Baeyer (Nobel Laureate, 1905). This post he held until the resignation in 1950

. First, Wieland studied chemistry organic nitrogen compounds, . especially the mechanism of adherence of oxides of nitrogen to carbon-carbon double bond and nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons, . then the sequence of reactions occurring and intermediates, . resulting in the synthesis of fulminate acid from ethanol, . nitric acid and mercury,
. Analysis of the color reaction tetrafenilgidrazina led him to the discovery of free radicals of nitrogen. Wieland and his colleagues have published over 90 articles on studies of nitrogen compounds.

Based on research conducted by his predecessors for decades, Wieland created a theory of dehydrogenation (1912), based on the activation of hydrogen. He explained the oxidation of many organic and inorganic compounds as dehydrogenation (eg, removal of hydrogen atoms of the phosphor and formic acid or the formation of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide). Uniting the objects of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, indicating that the oxidation in living cells often happens that way - under the action of enzymes dehydrogenases.

The main theme of his research scientist, where he became interested in 1912, linked to the chemistry of bile acids.

In 1775 J. Conradi (JLConradi) opened in gallstones substance, named in 1824 by Michel Eugц¬ne Father Chevrel (Michel Eugц¬ne Chevreul, 1786-1889) cholesterol. In 1806 Louis Jacques ThцLnard (Louis Jacques ThцLnard, . 1777-1857) identified from the first of the biliary bile acids - 'holeinovuyu acid', . and Leopold Gmelin (Leopold Gmelin, . 1788-1853) and Friedrich Tideman (Friedrich Tiedemann, . 1781-1861) the following - 'cholic acid',
. The structure of cholesterol, cholic acid and some other derivatives of this series remains unknown

. Unable to use modern technologies such research, . spectrometry as, . chromatography and X-ray analysis, . Wieland made a, . he later described as 'a long and incredibly exhausting crossing the barren desert structures',
. His findings, . that cholic, . desoxycholic and lithocholic acid can be converted into holanovuyu acid, . pointed, . these bile acids have the same carbon skeleton and differ only by the number associated hydroxyl (-OH) groups,
.

Around the same time, A. Windaus (Nobel Prize, 1928) transformed the cholesterol holanovuyu acid, thus demonstrating the close structural relationship between bile acids and cholesterol. A team led by Wieland made the next step - splitting of bile acids, which proved to be a good reception, but has not led to conclusive results regarding the size of carbon rings in the studied molecules. Soon, . 1932, . English chemist Otto (Sigmund) Rosenheim (Otto, . Sigmund Rosenheim, . 1871-1955) and King Harold (Harold King, . 1887-1956) with the help of X-ray crystallography showed, . that all these substances are steroids (natural organic compounds with the structure, . consisting of four condensed carbon rings),
.

Wieland also noted that bile acids bind to fats and carbohydrates with the formation of a colloidal solution in water, and, consequently, their physiological function is to transfer food fats in the aquatic environment.

In 1927 Wieland was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for the study of bile acids and the structure of many related substances'.

Subsequently, he established the structural formulas and cholesterol, and cholic acid

. Next Wieland studied the chemistry of substances, . occurring in nature: morphine and strychnine, . curare alkaloids and lobeline, . Poisonous tsiklopeptidov - phalloidin and amanitin, . allocated from Amanita phalloides, . poison frogs - bufotolina and pigments wing Butterflies (pterinov),
.

He managed to achieve much, and coverage of interest to his order was extremely broad. He loved to draw and play music and often took part in home music performances. Notorious for its encyclopedic knowledge of chemistry, he spent 20 years was editor of the world-famous magazine 'Liebig's Annalen der Chemie'.

In the years of fascism had behaved courageously, without hiding his anti-Nazi views and favoring non-Aryan people (as it was then called) of origin. When in 1944 several of his students were put on trial on charges of treason, Wieland gave testimony at the trial in their defense.

In 1908, Wieland married Josephine Bartmann (Josephine Bartmann). They had three sons (one of them, Herman Theodor Felix Wieland, to determine the exact structure of phalloidin) and a daughter who married a Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for 1964 Linena Theodore (Feodor Lynen, 1911-1979).

Died Aug. 5, 1957 in Starnberg (Germany).


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