BARTON, Derek( Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1969)
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Biography BARTON, Derek
BARTON, DEREK (Barton, Derek HR) (1918-1998) (United Kingdom). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1969 (with O. Hassell).
Born Sept. 8, 1918 in Gravesend (Kent), near London, the son of William Thomas Burton and Maude Henrietta Barton. Receiving secondary education in the school Tonbridzhskoy, . He attended Dzhillingemsky Technical College, . but in 1938 moved to Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, . where in 1940 received an honorary degree (awarded for outstanding scientific achievements without defending a thesis), Bachelor of Science, . and in 1942 - a doctorate in organic chemistry,
In the next two years he was involved in chemical research related to the objectives of Defense, and then briefly worked as a chemical engineer in the Birmingham company, Albright Wilson's End '.
After the war, in 1945, Barton became an assistant lecturer at the Department of Chemistry, Imperial College. Allocated to it in 1946-1949 Scholarship for research work allowed to carry out research in the field of organic chemistry, for which he had in 1949 received his Ph.D.. The following year, working as a freelance lecturer in chemistry of natural compounds at Harvard University, Barton became interested in establishing the configuration of organic molecules. He read an article by O. Hassel, which described the two-dimensional form of cyclohexane, which are in equilibrium. Already in 1948, was published the first work of Barton, describing the non-valent interactions in the molecules of ethane, cyclohexane and decalin.
In 1950, Barton became interested in the different reaction rates for different types of steroids, and questioned whether these differences are explained by the spatial structure of molecules. He successfully applied the principles of conformational analysis to explain not only the reaction rate, but also the physical properties - optical rotatory dispersion, adsorption capacity, infrared and ultraviolet spectra.
Then he used the method of conformational analysis for the study of many other types of organic substances, including some alkaloids, natural substances of plant origin, such as nicotine and morphine
. Barton determined the spatial arrangement of substituents at the cyclohexane ring, . and they can occupy two different positions in space - in the plane of the cycle (equatorial orientation) or perpendicular to the plane of the ring (axial orientation),
. It turned out that the equatorially oriented Deputy stable axial.
Upon his return to England in 1951, Barton went to Birkbeck College, University of London, where two years later became a professor of organic chemistry, and in 1955 - Professor of Chemistry, established at the University of Glasgow.
From 1957 to 1978, Barton was a professor of organic chemistry at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London. During these years he also frequently lectured in the U.S.. During his stay at the Research Institute for Medicine and Chemistry in Cambridge (Massachusetts) in 1960 developed a method for initiating chemical reactions by using light, which became known as the process of Barton. This process led to the synthesis of aldosterone - the hormone that helps regulate sodium and potassium in the kidneys.
Since 1960, the Barton area of interest shifted to the area of natural molecules - he turned to issues of Photochemistry and biosynthesis.
In 1969, Barton and O. Hassel was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for his contribution to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry'. In his Nobel lecture traced the development of Barton conformational analysis, and described its application in chemistry and biology. 'It is interesting to watch - he concluded - as the hypothesis of an acorn grows the tree of knowledge'.
Arne Fredga (Arne Fredga), a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in his speech at the presentation of the winners said: 'clever piece of work: a six-membered ring served as the foundation for a dynamic stereochemistry'.
Which appeared in 1950 a brief article in the journal Barton 'Experientia', called "The conformation of the steroid nucleus, compared meaningfully with the classical stereochemical studies Ya.Vant Hoff. Here's how Burton himself has determined that such a conformational analysis. This is the 'preferred form of the correlation (or conformation) of the molecule with its physical and chemical properties'. Conformation of the same - 'the way the molecules interact with other molecules'
. Ideas of conformational analysis are basic principles of modern organic chemistry and biochemistry, . explain the properties of the main classes of biomolecules, . mechanism of action of physiologically active substances - drugs, . toxic agents, etc., . binding of biologically active molecules receptors, . enzyme-substrate interactions,
. Not surprisingly, the emergence of the winners of the first works in this area (there were many) gave rise to an avalanche of publications in the field of conformational analysis. He immediately took a firm place in the arsenal of chemists.
Upon his retirement from Imperial College of Science and Technology in 1978, Barton became the director of the Institute of Chemistry of Natural Compounds in Alive-sur-Iveta, France. 2-3 times per year traveled to the United States, where he was a director of Research Institute for Medicine and Chemistry.
A dedicated research work, Barton generously shared his knowledge, repeatedly lectured in various countries.
Died March 16, 1998.