BLOCH Konrad( German-American biochemist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1964)
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Biography BLOCH Konrad
BLOCH, KONRAD (Bloch, Konrad) (1912-2000), German-American biochemist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1964 (together with F. Lynen).
Born January 21, 1912 in Neisse (Upper Silesia), then it was the territory of Germany, now - the territory of Poland.
After finishing Realschule left his native city of Munich to enter the Higher Technical School in the Faculty of Chemistry. Very soon, thanks to brilliant teacher Hans Fischer, he became interested in organic chemistry, especially the structure of natural substances. While studying regularly attended lectures at Munich Chemical Society, where I addressed the best organic chemists of the time, Adolf Windaus, Heinrich Wieland and Rudolf Vilsatter.
In 1934 he received a bachelor's degree in Applied Chemistry. This ended in Munich during his life, as a year ago became Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler. As a Jew, Bloch decided to emigrate. Fortunately, he managed to find a temporary job at the Swiss Research Institute in Davos. His early research focus phospholipids tubercle bacillus.
In 1936, Bloch immigrated to the United States of America. On the advice of Max Bergmann and with substantial support from the Vallersteyna, he enrolled in graduate school at the department of biochemistry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. In 1938, graduated and received his doctorate. At the same time the head of the research team suggested Rudolf Shonheymer Bloch to work with him. That work group Shonheymera identified research priorities Bloch. He began more and more interested in the problems of intermediate metabolism and biosynthesis. Intermediate metabolism, biochemical breakdown of molecules of glucose and fat, accompanied by the elaboration of energy in the form of molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In 1942, Bloch and his colleague David Rittenberg began work on the biological synthesis of cholesterol - these studies, they were engaged in two decades.
Cholesterol is a substance consisting of 27 carbon atoms, forming 4 rings, and the side chain of 8 carbon atoms,. Cholesterol enters the body with food and synthesized by the liver and intestinal cells. It is present in all animal cells.
In 1946 Bloch moved to Chicago, received an offer from the University of Chicago to take the post of assistant professor of biochemistry. In 1948 he became associate professor in 1950 - Professor. In those years the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Chicago led by EA Evans. For his leadership, formed a remarkable team of associates, which continuously generate new ideas. Bloch continued his studies on the synthesis of cholesterol. In addition (in collaboration with Jay Snoukom) studied the synthesis of tripeptide glutathione (glutathione - one of the most important and necessary components for the life of plant and animal cells, . it plays a crucial role in the transformation of carcinogens into harmless substances),
. In 1953, received the Guggenheim Fellowship, a year worked at the Institute of Organic Chemistry in Zurich. Studies conducted in the laboratory of the Institute of Organic Chemistry, inspired by Bloch to conduct similar experiments in the United States.
In 1954, after returning from Zurich, he became a professor of biochemistry at the Department of Chemistry, Harvard University.
Continuing the study found that the main element of cholesterol is chemically active form of acetate - atsetilkoenzim A. Atsetilkoenzim A turns into mevalonic acid, . which, . B, in turn, becomes chemically active isoprene, . hydrocarbon compound, . of which subsequently formed first unsaturated hydrocarbon squalene (squalene acyclic polyunsaturated liquid hydrocarbons; distributed in the tissues of animals and plants, an important intermediate in the metabolism) and, . eventually, . cholesterol,
In the mid 20 in. the formation of cholesterol and its relationship with fatty acids was almost nothing is known. Scientists have speculated that between the content of cholesterol in the body and the formation of the walls of the arteries of cholesterol plaque (atherosclerosis), there is some connection. Bloch was possible to establish the nature of this connection: a chain of transformations of cholesterol in the body, according to Bloch, looked like this - acetate, cholesterol, fatty acids, female sex hormones. Thanks to its opening, it became clear that all steroidal substances in the body are derived from cholesterol.
In 1964 Konrad Bloch (together with F. Lynen) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acids'
. Bloch - a member of the American Chemical Society, . National Academy of Sciences, . American Academy of Arts and Sciences, . American Society for Biochemistry, . Harvey Society, . American Philosophical Society, Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences of Lombardy, . foreign member of the Australian Academy of Sciences,
. In 1967 - President of the American Society of Biochemistry, from 1966 to 1969 - Chairman of the Section of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences, in 1968 - Chairman of the National Committee of the International Society of Biochemistry
. Among the awards: Medal of society biochemists (1958), . Fritzsche Award of the American Chemical Society (1964), . Prize for scientific achievement of the University of Notre Dame (1965), . Medal Cardano (Academy of Sciences of Lombardy, . 1965), . Award for Excellence in Science (Medical School at the University of Chicago, . 1964), . William Lloyd Evans Award (Ohio University, . 1968),
. Doctor Honoris Causa, University of Uruguay, Brazil, Nancy, of Columbia University, the Technical University of Munich.
Bloch died in October 2000 in Burlington, USA.