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Carl Bosch

( Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1931)

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Biography Carl Bosch
BOSCH, CARL (Bosch, Carl), (1874-1940). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1931 (jointly with F. Bergius).

Born August 27, 1884 in Cologne in the family of Carl Bosch, a trader sanitation facilities, and Paula Lebst. He had 4 younger brothers and sister. From an early age is well managed in the natural sciences, technical disciplines, and dreamed of becoming a chemist.

During the year, Bosch worked at a metallurgical plant, and from 1894 to 1896 he studied metallurgy and mechanical engineering at the Technical University in Charlottenburg (now part of Berlin). After it began to study chemistry at the University of Leipzig and in 1898 his Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry.

The following year, Bosch went to work on plant pigments BASF in Ludwigshafen am Rhein. He began with the industrial development of synthetic indigo by Bayer (Nobel Prize, 1905). Further, to address the problem of binding atmospheric nitrogen, experimented with cyanide and metal nitrides.

The level of training allowed him to Bosch in 1907 to create and lead an experimental laboratory to test the effectiveness of the method of production of barium cyanamide.

In the early 20 in. practical demands of industry and technology required to develop production of ammonia, which were needed for agricultural purposes and for military purposes. Decisive progress in the development of ammonia synthesis was achieved in 1909 professor of chemistry at the Technical University in Karlsruhe F. Haber (Nobel Prize, 1918).

In 1909 the company BASF (Badische Anilin & Soda-Fabrik) has acquired a patent for Haber developed the process of synthesis and has set its employee Bosch task of turning this way in the industrial cost-effective. The method of synthesis of ammonia by Haber demanded not only an extremely high pressure and temperature, but also the use of two rare and expensive catalysts - osmium and uranium

. To solve this problem it was necessary to have a huge amount of clean and cheap hydrogen gas, . cheap, . effective and available in sufficient quantity catalysts, . and equipment, . able to withstand high pressure and temperature,
.

Bosch and his team managed to get the necessary amounts of hydrogen by separating it from the water gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is formed by passing water vapor over a hot charcoal). Then they began searching for inexpensive catalysts that can replace the proposed Haber osmium and uranium.

And, finally, Bosch has improved the design of equipment capable of withstanding high pressures and temperatures necessary for the implementation of the Haber process.

The main difficulty was the construction of the reaction catalyst column. At high pressures and temperatures, hydrogen penetrates through the iron walls of the column, turning iron into brittle alloy, which is destroyed. Bosch has divided the effects of temperature and pressure, creating a double-walled container, between the walls of which remain ring-shaped space. Hydrogen diffused through the inner cylinder, but not through an external. Steelmakers BASF cooked soft, chrome-plated steel with low carbon content for the inner cylinder, and for the external - a solid carbon steel. While in the inner cylinder at a pressure of 200 atmospheres and a temperature of 500 б¦ C was the reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen into the space between the cylinders was fed a mixture of gaseous hydrogen and nitrogen at a pressure of 200 atmospheres. Thus, the inner wall was protected from sudden pressure changes, and the outer exposed to high pressure, but not high temperature.

In 1913, BASF has built in OPPA, near Ludwigshafen am Rhein, the first factory for the industrial production of synthetic ammonia. When the factory Bosch set up a laboratory where research was carried out catalytic methods, verified the phase rule for salt fertilizers, were engaged in photochemistry and polymerization. He also organized a laboratory of biological research in the GCU, and in 1914 - an experimental agricultural station in Ludwigshafen.

Another technological development was the Bosch synthesis of urea from carbon dioxide and ammonia, which became an industrial process in 1913.

Appointed in 1919, plant manager BASF, Bosch began working on an inorganic method of synthesis of methanol. Methanol is required for the production of formaldehyde required for many organic compounds, especially polymers and fertilizers. In 1923, Bosch and his team have synthesized methanol, having carried out the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Shortly thereafter they found the optimal conditions for commercial production of methanol.

In 1925, Bosch was appointed President of BASF. He is to stimulate and support research on many topics. So, after the 1925 F. Bergius BASF sold its patents on the hydrogenation of coal, his work continued K. Bosch. Bosch offered to its employees to prove the technical feasibility of turning coal into liquid fuel. In 1926 Mathias Pierus (Matthias Pier, 1882-1965), one of the disciples W. Nernst (Nobel Prize, 1920), which BASF conducted research activities, improved the Bergius process and has increased yield of gasoline. Two years later, Mr.. Lane was built factory for the production of oil from coal.

In 1931, Bosch and Bergius, was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize 'for his services on the introduction and development of high-pressure techniques in chemistry'

. In 1935, Bosch became chairman of the board of directors of the concern IGFI, . and two years later - the successor of Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (Nobel Prize in Physics, . 1918) as president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (now - Max Planck Society) and held these two posts simultaneously,


. Bosch collecting insects, plants and minerals, conducted surveillance in its own observatory in Heidelberg and to provide continued financial support of the Astrophysical Observatory of Albert Einstein (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1921) in Potsdam
.

Died April 26, 1940 Heidelberg.


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