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Kurt Alder

( Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1950)

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Biography Kurt Alder
Alder, Kurt (Alder, Kurt) (1902-1958) (Germany). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1950 (jointly with O. Diels).
Born July 10, 1902 in Germany, in Kenigshyutte (now Chorzow, Poland), near Katowice, in a teacher's family of Joseph and Mary Alder Alder. He received secondary education in local schools. At the end of the First World War the family moved to Germany in Kiel, to preserve Germanic nationality. In 1922 Alder graduated from Berlin High School and enrolled at Berlin University to study chemistry.

Education continued at the Christian Albrechts University (now University of Kiel), where he worked at O. Diels, Professor of Organic Chemistry and Director of University Institute of Chemical. In 1926, completing his thesis on the reactions with azodikarbonovogo ether, was awarded his doctorate and became assistant Diels.

In 1928, Diels and Alder published an article that described the reaction azodikarbonovogo ether with one of diene hydrocarbons.

They saw this as making a completely new type of reaction, now called the diene synthesis, or 1,4-cycloaddition, or Diels - Alder. Diene synthesis occurs when the diene (a molecule containing two conjugated double bonds) is connected with a molecule called dienophiles (literally - a loving diene), which has one double bond. The product of such a connection - a molecule with a six-membered rings - called the adduct.

They described the diene synthesis of cyclopentadiene (diene) with maleic anhydride (dienofil) to form a highly stable adduct (3,6-endometilen-4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride).

Diels and Alder have noticed that many dienes distributed in nature and that the dienes and dienophiles react readily at normal temperatures. From this observation they concluded that the diene synthesis can give chemists a new wide synthetic approach.

During the next eight years, Diels and Alder continued to work on clarifying the nature of diene synthesis, extending it to many new sites and getting a lot of new six-membered adducts.

In 1930 Alder became a lecturer in organic chemistry at the University of Kiel, and in 1934 - became extraordinary professor, 1936 - Head located in Leverkusen, the research department of the concern 'IG Farben'. Leverkusen continued to handle Alder diene synthesis and Related Problems.

Alder studied the general laws of formation of adducts, depending on the structure of the initial components and summarized them in the rules Alder. The scientist noted that it is the selectivity of diene synthesis is 'one of the decisive factors that determine the value of diene synthesis as a method of'. 'If the fundamental property of diene synthesis was not discovered, . we would never have learned, . that it can be used to obtain the substance from the mixture and divide them in a mixture, . that diene synthesis is a unique means of determining the nature of specific types of substances',
.

He studied the stereochemical features of diene synthesis and reactivity of dienes and dienophiles in it.

Drew attention to the possibility of the reverse process, called retrodienovym synthesis, and found wide application of this new chemical transformation.

On the basis of diene synthesis opened ene synthesis - join dienophiles not dienes, and olefins, the so-called allyl type. This was another new very promising (in terms of synthesis) reaction.

Then he studied the application of diene synthesis to vyproyasnit chemical composition of the complex products of natural origin, such as terpenes, ergosterin (parent substance of vitamin D) itself, and vitamin D

. Returning in 1940 to the academic activities, . Alder was the supervisor of experimental chemistry and chemical technology at the University of Cologne and at the same time director of the Chemical Institute of the University of, . in 1949 - Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy,
.

In 1950, together with the Diels Alder was awarded the Nobel Prize 'for the discovery and improvement of diene synthesis'.

After receiving the Nobel Prize Alder continued his teaching and research in the further use of diene synthesis for industrial purposes.

In 1955 he joined the 17 other Nobel laureates, signed a declaration calling on all countries to condemn the war as an instrument of foreign policy.

Alder has never been married. Earlier in his career, he experienced financial difficulties, and Diels found various ways to support it. Their relationship is never overshadowed, even though they are led between the laboratories at times there are tensions. Alder did not like the publicity and all the way to avoid participation in conferences and congresses. Was an excellent pianist.

In 1957 a doctor diagnosed him with exhaustion ', advised complete rest.

Died June 20, 1958 in Cologne.


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