Babanova Mariya( Actress)
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Biography Babanova Mariya
Babanova, Maria Ivanovna (1900-1983), People's Artist of the USSR. Many of the established actress roles are examples of theatrical skill, but played a smaller role than it could play.
Born on October 29 (11 November) 1900. Childhood in a philistine Zamoskvorechye, measured in the atmosphere of the working families 'aristocracy', and there were no signs of brilliant theatrical way Babanova. Already in the Commercial School (later Plekhanov), many noticed the blond nymph, a reading at concerts poetry and prose unusually deep singing voice.
Time, which coincided with the youth Babanova, changed the fate of many. The atmosphere of theatrical performance, the rapid flowering of all sorts of stage directions in the first post-revolutionary decade have helped many young talents to find oneself. Time of creative research and discovery, and determined its destiny. Babanova graduated from drama school under the direction of FF Komisarzhevskogo, brother of Vera Komissarzhevskaya.
After immigrating Komissargevskaya in England, building the studio was given the Theater of the RSFSR 1 (later Meyerhold Theater). Under him, the state supreme Directing Workshops. It crossed the path of Meyerhold and aspiring actress. All subsequent theatrical life Babanova will be associated with scenic excellence, which began exactly on the boards Workshops.
For Babanova often used such a thing as 'innate skills'. Meyerhold perceptively noted in the exam artistic perfection of the young researches have: 'Learn it, perhaps nothing, and hardly possible'. This accurate assessment is largely explains the subsequent break with the Master in the late 1920's.
The first role Babanova - Stella in "The Magnificent Cuckold" (1922) F. Krommelinka Workshops on stage made her not only a celebrity, but a symbol of the left theater. Brilliant acrobatics staging director, where instead of 'atmosphere' - the cult of the theatrical game - the terms, accounting for the major 'universities' Babanova, bases its technology. No psychology, no reflection on the actor's deep image of staging "Cuckold" is not implied. Born hymn free play, human emancipation, the joy of motion, place a kind of demonstration of the possibilities of a new clean man break with the old proprietary world of passions.
Small masterpiece young actress was the role of Boy ( "Roar, China, S. Tretyakov). This performance in the theatrical literature written hundreds of pages, dozens of enthusiastic articles, although the role consisted of three, almost mute output. They gave the actress read the entire small, but the bitter fate of Chinese boy. Babanova very great importance to address this in a fair gave Meyerhold's staging, which allowed the actress lyrical comedy Role rise to the tragedy. Monumentality of Performing solutions piercing shaded by touching the subject of child defenseless creatures, all the while singing a sad song on the Chinese improbably high notes. A small incident became the emotional center of the performance.
Find your line in a particular role in Babanova always associated with the search, especially expressive movements and staging. Particularly acute this problem arose in the period poslemeyerholdovsky. Great creative success actresses have played at Meyerhold two great classic comedy roles - Polina from the "plum" by Alexander Ostrovsky (Theater of Revolution, 1923) and Maria Antonovna of Gogol's "Inspector General" (Guest, 1926). They play them according to tradition, empty meschanochkami. Specificity of talent Babanova in reverse: never and nowhere actress has not played squalor or vulgarity. Satirical accusing the paint is not in its palette. In both of these characters babanovskih triumphed so sincere childlike actions, intonations, that they did not occur to condemn. Both roles were perfectly lined up an actress and polished to brilliant perfection.
From 1927 - Babanova only in the theater of the Revolution, the stage where she has played before, while working in Gostime. At that time it had played occasional bright miniatures, singing and spectacular modern 'bourgeois' dance, . symbolizing capitalist 'expansion', . but in the performance Babanova, . with its extraordinary plasticity and emotional, . had great success (Beneme in Lake Lyul A. Faiko, . Tea in the "Teacher Bubuse" by the same author, . 'Fokstrotiruyuschaya Europe' in the play DE, etc.),
In 1928, the theater of the Revolution was staged by director 'Moscow Art' wing A. Wild A. Faiko play "The man with the briefcase, which has become a theatrical event in the life of the capital, as well as a major milestone career Babanova. The role of the boy Gogi, who had returned with his mother in Russia from Paris, Parisian Russian deprived of family and homeland was an actress lived in the same breath. For the first time confronted with the realities of psychological theater, for which it is important first of all that, and not as an actress has done a lot of discoveries.
For Babanova characterized by a combination of the depth of the dramatic content from indispensable comic touch that was not by accident. She avoided a frank komikovaniya, heroic pathos, 'sentiment' in any romantic images in the interpretation of the passions, in any role she found something witty, funny. Played over a dozen major roles of love, Babanova asserted his understanding of the feelings, treating him with caution, as though afraid to lubricate straightforward filing. In all veiled actresses, built-in tones poludvizheniyah, even where there is an open text. And this charm of its very different, classic and modern heroines. In the role of the working Anka ( "Poem of the ax, N. Pogodin) her love for Stepan embodied in a special improvised dance. Kiss story was able to play the actress in the almost wordless role of bluebells from "My Friend". Both plays put AD Popov in 1931 and had a huge hit with viewers. This role invented Babanova, 'negative' by the author, was again a bit not the center of the play, a symbol of woman's love, approved by it through humor. About Babanova-Campanulaceae wrote that 'in its microscopic role is enormous, as the comic actress'
. Age of the Russian theater for 1930-1950 were such babanovskie lyrical roles, . Tanya in the homonymous play by Arbuzov, . restored by the author and actress in the second version, Juliet ( "Romeo and Juliet", . W. Shakespeare), . in the performance of AD Popova (staged in 1935 and renewed in 1948) and her best role of the Spanish aristocrat Diana's comedy by Lope de Vega's "Dog in the Manger",
. All of them were present babanovsky monoteatr, in which the play lined up around the main actress. Life has confirmed that this approach to the formulation of her participation was the most loyal.
Her fragile, in the beginning of luminous joy, nepodhodivshie under the general Rankings lyrical heroine (Juliet or Tanya) were the hardest path of mental tests. Great difficulty for Babanova was Juliet, to the image that the actress truly approached, enriched by the experience of Tanya and Countess Diana. Play the tragedy, using polukomediyny arsenal, avoiding pathos - a task that could solve Babanova only to 1948, when the problem of age.
"The dog in the manger", set Petrov in 1938, more than 20 years did not leave the theater scene, delighting more than one generation of theater. The whole experience of the actress on the impeccably precise alignment of the role of the line multiplied by the comedic brilliance of the play and poetic translation of M. Lozinski, in which she took a large part, happily coincided and we've got a theatrical masterpiece. Babanova avoid overloading the image of Diana psychological details. This image, as it should be a Spanish author, was formed from the waving fans, from the turning of the cap, from the movement of gorgeous dresses.
Since 1943 the theater of the Revolution, are essentially theater Babanova, which worked with different producers, mostly psychological direction, led by NP Okhlopkov, a student of Meyerhold. However, despite the expected logic, the way the director and actress, it would seem, one schools, sharply differed. At one time, managed to keep under one roof, theater and theater Babanova Okhlopkova. But soon the two different systems came into conflict, revealing a complete misunderstanding of the parties. In art, the actress has always lurked a mystery, mystery. Perhaps it arises as a result of precise constructions. But surely that is so necessary for constructing an actress born from a need in their own way to express the content. Unlike Okhlopkova Babanova eschewed obsessive focus, open receptions. Meanwhile, for Okhlopkova all this was the essence of theater created. Director tried to use the actress, as necessary for the performance paint, devoid of any half-tones and hues, not to mention the creative freedom to search. Directing Okhlopkova zeroing in immediately on the result, necessarily significant and visible. Game Babanova differed primarily inner richness, in terms Okhlopkova with not very bright outside party. For Babanova fell on hard time inconsistency: the repertoire with age, developed their own aesthetics with changes in the theater. Instead theater Babanova remain separate roles, some hard, rough, played a few times, as Lyubov Shevtsova ( "Young Guard", Fadeeva, 1947), Ophelia ( "Hamlet", 1954). Director did not conceal that he was interested only created actress external pattern role.
But there were at that time and great success. In ohlopkovskom repertoire is the role of the play Frenchwoman Marie V. Guseva, "The sons of three rivers", 1944. Marie was the last role babanovskogo theater, which is gradually being passed, he was replaced by the theater open lyricism, called 'sheptalnym'.
Despite all the love the actress to Russian classics, it has played surprisingly little role of classic articles. Her Larissa from "Bespridanitsy" (1940, staged by Yuri Zavadsky) does not coincide with the emotional systems actresses, as well as Ranevskaya of Chekhov's "Cherry Orchard". And the role of Sophia in "Zykov" Gorky (director A. Dudin, 1951) and the role of Moskaleva played much later, in the formulation MOKnebel from Uncle's dream "by F. Dostoyevsky became her great creative achievements. Both udavshiesya roles were typical, they saw the actress is strong, unconventional characters. And if an Ranevskaya in Chekhov's play was irrelevant, then Gorky and Dostoevsky's getting into character was accurate. But the external force and imperiousness mind his heroines Babanova able to show the most important - children's utopian dream of happiness, longing for the failed love, lost hope.
Several roles portrayed in the period of leadership AA Goncharova, who headed the theater after the death Okhlopkova in 1967. But the main problem was Babanova uselessness, lack of suitable roles. Latest role Wives of Edward Albee play "all over" (statement of L. Tolmacheva) Babanova played at the Moscow Art Theater in 1979. Again, the actress has been demonstrated rare technical skill in creating extraordinary female character.