Zhirmunski Viktor Maksimovich( Russian literary critic, linguist.)
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Biography Zhirmunski Viktor Maksimovich
Zhirmunsky, VICTOR MAKSIMOVICH (1891-1971), Russian literary critic, linguist. Academician of the USSR (1966), corresponding member of the Bavarian, British, Danish, German Academies of Sciences, an honorary doctor of science in many European universities. Born July 21 (2 August) 1891 in St. Petersburg in the family physician, state councilor. After Tenishev School (1908) entered the law faculty of St. Petersburg University, soon moved to the Roman-Germanic branch of History and Philology. In Tenishev School of Zhirmunsky had a great influence of his teacher of literature VV Gippius. As he wrote later Zhirmunsky 'enthusiasm for literature, especially poetry, and art was a common feature of young people of my generation'. He began to publish poems in his high-school magazines, and then in the 'new magazine for all' (1909) and the almanac 'Death' (1910).
In his university years Zhirmunski met her future literary historians Eikhenbaum and KV Mochulsky, visited the Pushkin seminary professor SA Vengerov. In 1912 he graduated from university and was sent to Germany, where he perfected his germanistike in 1912-1913. One of the scientific results of this trip was the article "Heine and Romanticism" (1914), which was, in particular, praised AABloka. In 1913 a book was published Zhirmunsky "German Romanticism and modern mysticism, in which the problems Jena Romantics considered in connection with the art selection of contemporary Russian Symbolism. About the book kindly responded, many linguists, among whom were F. de la Bart, Eichenbaum, F. Stepun.
In 1915, assistant professor Zhirmunski read in the St. Petersburg University lectures on English literature. His report on "new poetry, read in 1916 in 'Neofilologicheskom society', were widely reported in the literary circles of Russia and was subsequently published as an article" having overcome "symbolism. Report and paper were devoted acmeism and its best representatives - Anna Akhmatova, NS Gumilev, Osip Mandelstam. Gumilev called Zhirmunsky 'Saint Bevom Russian acmeism'. Modern poetry and articles devoted to the next decade, "Two trends in modern poetry" (1920), "On the classical and romantic poetry" (1920), "Kuzmin's Poetry" (1920), "Poems of Alexander Blok" (1921) and others.
In 1915 Zhirmunski served in the army medic, was awarded the St. George Medal. Observations and experiences described in the essay "In Eastern Galicia with a medical detachment" (1916). Upon his return to St. Petersburg has played with articles and reviews in the press, . collaborated with the magazine 'The Love for Three Oranges' (publisher Vs.E.Meyerhold), . participated in the 'Union of artists', . lectured at meetings of the 'Society for the Study of modern poetry' in the journal 'Apollo' and Pushkin Society in Petrograd University,
In 1917 Zhirmunski became a professor, head of the Department of Romance and Germanic Philology Saratov University. The field of his scientific interests was extremely wide. In 1920 he was one of the active participants OPOYAZ. Work at the Leningrad University, combined with the superintendence of verbal art department at the Institute of History of Art. Under his editorship came out a series of questions of poetics and collections Poetics. Zhirmunski also published their own books about the poetics of "Composition of lyrical poems" (1921), "Rhyme. Its History and Theory "(1923)," Introduction to the metric. Verse Theory "(1925) and numerous articles on poetics, part of which was included in the book" Questions of Theory of Literature "(1928).
With broad erudition, Zhirmunsky became one of the founders of the national school of comparative historical study of world culture. In 1924 was published his doctoral dissertation "Byron and Pushkin, followed by more fundamental research in the field of comparative studies (" Goethe in Russian Literature ", 1937, etc.). The need for a comprehensive study of cultural development has identified interest Zhirmunsky to historical poetics. In 1940 he published the works of AN Veselovsky, but then appeared in print his own article on the historical poetics.
In 1930 Zhirmunski issued a number of linguistic works on general linguistics, comparative grammar of Germanic languages and dialects, the history of German. Was engaged in the study of Oriental literature, investigated the epic of the Turkic peoples
. In 1921-1935 Zhirmunski was a member of the Research Institute of the comparative study of literatures of East and West, . Senior Fellow of the Institute of Language and Thought, . in 1935-1950 - head of the Western Division of the Institute of Literature (Pushkin House), . in 1957-1971 - Head of the Indo-European languages of the Leningrad branch of the Institute of Linguistics,
In 1949, during a campaign 'against' cosmopolitanism ', Zhirmunsky along with other eminent scientists (Eichenbaum, M. Azadovsky, G. Hooke) was charged with the promotion of the bourgeois-liberal views and expelled from the Leningrad University. Returned to the university only in 1956.
Zhirmunski died in Leningrad on Jan. 31, 1971.