ZINOVIEV Alexander( The philosopher, logician, sociologist, essayist)
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Biography ZINOVIEV Alexander
Zinoviev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (p. 1922) - philosopher, logician, sociologist, essayist.
Born October 29, 1922 in the village Chukhloma Kostroma Region. in a large peasant family. After graduation in 1939 entered the Institute of philosophy, literature and history (the institute) in Moscow, where he was expelled for his opposition to the cult of Stalin. Saved from persecution in the Army in 1940-1946. He took part in the hostilities of World War II as a tank officer, the trooper, pilot of attack aircraft. He graduated from the war in Berlin in 1945, awarded military decorations.
In 1946-1954 - studied at the philosophical faculty of Moscow State University. University, here postgraduate. In 1954, defending his thesis "The logic of 'capital' K. Marx ". From 1955 to 1976 - Fellow of the Institute of Philosophy Academy of Sciences. Research interests - the problem of logic, the methodology of scientific knowledge, the application of logic to analyze the language of science. Develops formal apparatus for the analysis of concepts, statements and evidence. During this period, were written in the monograph: "Philosophical problems of many-valued logic" (1960), . "The logic of speech and the theory of inference" (1962), . "Fundamentals of the scientific theory of scientific knowledge" (1967), . "Integrated Logic" (1970), . "The Logic of Science" (1972), . "Logic, Physics (1972),
. Five of the six works were translated into English and German and published in the West - a phenomenon exclusive to the work of contemporary philosophers of domestic.
In 1960 defended his doctoral thesis on "Philosophical problems of many-valued logic", became a professor. In 1963-1969 - Head of Department of Logic Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University. From 1965 to 1976 - Member of the editorial board of the journal "Problems of Philosophy '. In his views and beliefs of AA Zinoviev belonged to that part of the Soviet philosophers (E. Ilyenkov, . G. Batishchev, . M. Mamardashvili, etc.), . who in his writings and speeches were opposed to dogmatism in science, . of humanities and social consciousness,
. Acute philosophical discussions among students, professors, young scientists influenced the social climate in the country, created a system of views and beliefs formed part of the Soviet society.
In 1976 in Lausanne (Switzerland), published by 'L'age d'homme' was published first novel, artistic and journalistic AA Zinoviev, "Yawning Heights" (written in 1974), containing a 'sharp criticism of the Soviet system'. Soviet philosopher in stating their views on the device of Soviet society has moved from the plane of backstage criticism to the open public speaking. His gesture was appreciated by the authorities as a frank attack on the Soviet system. He was stripped of the title of Doctor of Philosophy and professor with the wording 'for failing to post and rank', was dismissed from the Institute of Philosophy. A. Zinoviev was asked to leave.
In exile from 1978 to 1999 he lived in Munich, being engaged in literary and scientific activities and serving as a visiting professor. His articles and interviews published in magazines and dissident press. Nevertheless, in the circles of dissidents, he is not, . because, . harshly criticized the device of Soviet society, . not detect characteristic rejection of the entire Soviet dissidents: ': the brutal criticism of Soviet society, the Soviet people is an element of Soviet culture,
. We were innovators in building a new society. We must be innovative and in his understanding, and therefore - and in his merciless criticism. Not self-praise, and criticism of ourselves is the foundation of our assertion in world history '. (AA Zinoviev, "Para bellum"). In 1980 in labor "Communism as a reality," he expounds his theory of 'real communism'. Scientific and journalistic articles, reports, interviews, refine and develop the theoretical and social positions, published in the proceedings "without illusions" (1979), "We and the West" (1981), "neither liberty nor equality, nor fraternity" (1983 )
. Particularly noteworthy novels and stories of 70-80-x: "Bright Future" (1978), . "In anticipation of Paradise" (1979), . "Yellow House" (1980), . "Homo sovieticus" (1982), . "Our youth flight" (1983), . "Para bellum" (1984), . "Come to Calvary" (1985), . "Live" (1989, . National Literary Award Italy 1992), . devoted to the analysis of the social reality of stagnant socialism and the relations between the Soviet Union - West,
. Books Zinoviev, published abroad, illegally smuggled into the USSR, multiplied and dispersed through samizdat.
Zinoviev as the founder of a new genre - the sociological novel, which belongs to both areas of science and literature. Scientific methods, results, concepts, statements used in it as an artistic means, and artistic images - as a means of science.
The shape of novels Zinoviev resemble a mosaic of small, enclosed within the meaning of texts - Soviet jokes, dialogue between representatives of different professions and social positions, cases of life considerations, as well as poems, verses, etc.. Overshadows dialogue and reflection storyline characters guessed hardly. A generalized characters no names and descriptions of appearance, they are indicated as a slanderer, the Thinker, a sociologist, schizophrenic, Westerner, a babbler, Patriot, alarmist, muff, Director, Boss, etc.. Zinoviev argued that because its purpose is not art display, and a rigorous and consistent analysis, it is enough to reveal the position of the intellectual heroes, not being distracted by such minor details as names, appearance, etc..
Artworks AA Zinoviev gave cut mentality of the Soviet intelligentsia period of 'developed socialism'. His characters are endless dialogue on all sorts of ideological and existential themes - give definition and clarify the concept, . compare their real and mythological importance to the Soviet, . trying to understand the essence of what is happening and put the society 'final diagnosis',
In his first novel "The Yawning Heights", answering the question, what we have built as a result, Zinoviev represents the reverse side of the Soviet myth - the real life of city residents Iban, where there is cruelty, tyranny and hopelessness. Ibanchane are Socratic dialogues, going through the concepts ibanizma - a myth, which they profess, - all sorts of situations and the realities of their lives. And every time ascertain absurd situation, an impasse, a logical trap or effort spent in vain. In Yawning Heights conveys a sense of global stalemate and frustration, characteristic of recent years skidding socialism.
According to Zinoviev, the only thing that could be the starting point for real change in society, it is': The truth about myself. But other. Ruthless truth. Fight for it and against it - the deep and bitter struggle in the society. And the level of development of society from the standpoint of humanity will henceforth be determined by the degree of truth, admitted by society: When people overcome at least some truth, they have other criteria. And it all begins with this'.
In the context of the social climate of the time works Zinoviev served as 'nail in the coffin' of Soviet ideology, by then already well 'battered' social activities of dissidents and criticized Solzhenitsyn.
In the novels "In anticipation of paradise" and "Yellow House" develops the theme of the absurd real socialism. In the "Yellow House" shows the life of the color of the Soviet intellectuals - philosophers and ideologues of the symbolic figures who guessed the real figures of Soviet philosophical hangouts of those years. Few of them decided to expose the fundamental criticism of the existing device 'regime'. Most are not developing anything new in the field of communist theory, actively engaged in 'Marxist criticism' bourgeois tendencies, in fact disease in bourgeois science and ideology. Others - as a methodology (its prototype - known in 70-80 GPSchedrovitsky) - attempting to build a plane of humanitarian knowledge without the participation of ideology. Zinoviev diagnosed condition 'progressive Soviet intelligentsia' as external conformity with the full and complete orientation to the West.
Tale "Homo sovieticus" and "Para bellum" Open theme - the Soviet people in the West. In "Homo Sovieticus" Zinoviev provides one of the definitions of the Soviet man, . or gomososa: 'Gomosos accustomed to live in filthy conditions, relatively, . ready to meet challenges, . always expect the worst yet, . conquered by the orders of the authorities: Gomosos is a product of adaptation to certain social conditions',
. Behavioral instincts, acquired in a socialist society, are extremely tenacious, for example from domestic migrants in the West. Former Komsomol easily become Orthodox activists. Thriving intrigues, jealousies, power struggles - all of which they fled from the Soviet Union and that the full play of the same in different social conditions
. Zinoviev says, . that as a purely external change social conditions does not change the primary social instincts, . real change is possible only after great work on a, . based on the development of new values and the ability to perceive the truth about yourself,
The story "A pair bellum" - about the everyday life of the apparatchiks of the 'Central Committee of the KGB' and ordinary intelligence agents, started the organization and pursue nuclear war hysteria in the confrontation with the West in the 70-80. Intrigue, espionage, murder of dissidents, mutual recriminations are weekdays this senseless and harmful venture. Voltage reaches the limit on both sides, . on the agenda is the question is: 'Which side is the first clicks on the button? " And at this time succumbed to their fears of ordinary people in the USSR and the United States builds a bomb shelter and stocking products in case of atomic bombing, . expected from day to day,
In the story "Come to Calvary" AA Zinoviev affect the theme of education. In his view, to adapt and function in modern society is enough surface knowledge. But if the goal - the pursuit of truth, the problem of education must be different.
Since 1985, the beginning of Gorbachev's perestroika in the work of Zinoviev there are new reasons. From the outset, he sharply negative attitude to 'restructuring', calling it catastroika. He believed that the crisis facing the Soviet Union to the mid-80's, was a specific crisis management of the communist system and demanded for his special permission, are specific to a communist society means. Methods borrowed from the West a fundamentally different system, namely, market reforms and liberalization, this does not fit and will lead to the collapse of the Soviet system and the country as a whole. To justify his position, he turns to the study of the social system of the West.
Its findings and criticisms contained in a collection of essays, "The West - a phenomenon zapadnizma" (1982, A. de Tocqueville Award for best book in sociology) and in the sociological novel, "The Global cheloveynik" (1997). In them he argues that 'high standard of living in the West has in itself no less evil than the low level in Russia'.
By showing the inadequacy of Western methods of adjustment, Zinoviev draws attention to the unique capabilities of the communist system. He believes that the Communist ideology with its high humanistic values had little in common with its implementation in the everyday life of brutal Soviet reality. Try to understand what is 'the banality of life' not allowed to reveal realize its potential. About this - many of those years: "Radiant" (1988), Before "(1988)," The Troubles "(1994)," The Russian Experiment "(1994), a collection of articles" Post-Communist Russia "(1996).
In 1990, AA, Zinoviev was restored in academic titles. In June 1999, returned to permanent residence in Russia, Moscow. It teaches in the Literary Institute and State University, engaged in literary work, stands in the press and public on the relationship between Russia and the West, domestic and foreign policies of Russia, as well as on issues of social order. It is called the modern Saltykov-Shchedrin, and artistic research contribution to social theory is compared with "Parkinson's Law" S. Parkinson's, where the British sense of humor was given an analysis of the functioning of the bureaucratic apparatus. In 2002 the book "The Russian tragedy (death of utopia)"
. Although, . that as formal logic Zinoviev could not agree with the possibility of reconciling the two fundamentally different, . irreducible to each other homogeneous systems - the Western and Communist, . views Zinoviev observed evolution of, . reflecting new social realities of Russia,
. He proposes to begin the development of a new non-communist ideology - "The Ideology of the Party of the future" (2003), the appropriate level of knowledge and social development, 21 in. - Because the 'new people have brought up, and they were not born in the' ready made '.