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Benjamin Constant de Rebeka

( Franco-Swiss writer, philosopher and political activist)

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Biography Benjamin Constant de Rebeka
Constant de Rebeka, Benjamin (Constant de Rebecque, Benjamin) (1767-1830), the Franco-Swiss writer, philosopher and political activist. Born in Lausanne (Switzerland) 25 October 1767. He studied in Germany, England and Scotland, then in Paris, where thanks to Madame de Stael began in 1795, his political activities. Supported the Directory and Napoleon, after the coup became a member of the Eighteenth Brumaire Tribunate (1799-1802), but then left France, following in reference to Madame de Stael (1803-1814). Abroad, met with Goethe and Schiller, was connected with Schlegel. In 1814, . after the return of the Bourbons, . returned to France and wrote his first pamphlet, "The spirit of conquest and usurpation" (De l'esprit de conquLte et de l'usurpation), . and in 1816 - the novel "Adolf" (Adolphe), . played a prominent role in the development of Romanticism and modern psychological prose (in 1951 were published as previously known novel, "Cecilia", . and in 1952 - "Intimate Notebook),
. In 1819 became a member of the Chamber of Deputies and one of the leading publicists. After the coup of 1830, which played a significant role, became chairman of the Council of State.

In the philosophical concept of Constant reflected different influences, including Voltaire and encyclopedists, Kant, Schelling, and Schlegel, but the closest to him were the views of 'spokesmen', in particular Cabanis. Thus, he shared an agnostic position Cabanis, assuming certain knowledge about the underlying causes of peace and the existence of the soul after death, inaccessible to human reason. Main interests Constant focused around the moral and political issues. Constant experienced the impact of Stoicism, but he chose to Kant's moral duty, although it argued with Kant in "On the political reactions" (Des rLactions politiques), criticizing him for his unequivocal condemnation of lies. Duty, according to Constant, based on free choice, and freedom is a basic requirement of morality and principle of policy. Unlike Kant, believed freedom of religious expression, peculiar to man by nature and involving unselfishness and ability to sacrifice.

In Constant's political philosophy was based on the concept of a common will as a legitimate force capable of resisting various forms of violence. General will is formed in the process of free discussion of political events and issues, including in the press. In the freedom of thought, discussion and the press, he saw a guarantee against the despotic tendencies, inherent not only to absolutism, but also 'popular' rule (democracy)

. The writings on religion, . its origin, . forms and development (De la religion considerLe dans sa source, . ses formes et ses dLvLloppements, . in 5 volumes, . 1824-1831) and the Roman polytheism in its relation to Greek philosophy and Christianity "(Du polythLisme romain considerL dans ses rapports avec la philosophie grecque et la religion chrLtienne, . in 2 volumes, . published posthumously in 1833) Constant outlined the concept of religion, . passing in its development of three phases: fetishism, . polytheism and theism,
. Traditional theism, according to Constant, eventually befall the same fate as the previous form: he will face a devastating critique. The highest form of religion is a mystical theism, based on the religious feelings.

Constant died in Paris on December 8, 1830.


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Benjamin Constant de Rebeka, photo, biography
Benjamin Constant de Rebeka, photo, biography Benjamin Constant de Rebeka  Franco-Swiss writer, philosopher and political activist, photo, biography
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