ChröLtien de Troyes( Creator courtly romance genre)
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Biography ChröLtien de Troyes
ChröLtien de Troyes (Chrtien de Troyes) (ca. 1130 - ca. 1191), author of the earliest surviving medieval tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. He is often called the creator of the genre of courtly romance. About his personality and life we know little - only what can be learned from his texts. In an era when literary works, as a rule, remained unsigned, Chretien knew the value of his art and has always exhibited his name under each composed verse novels. In the prologue to his second novel, "Klizhes" (Cligs, OK. 1164), . Chretien proudly lists the previous works: translations of Ovid, . now all, . except, . maybe, . one ( "Filomena"), . lost; essay about King Mark and Isolde, . also lost, and preserved to this day poem "Erec and Enide" (Erec et Enide, . app,
. 1162) - the earliest known books of chivalry of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
In "Erec and Enid, examines the problems of compatibility with conjugal duties knight errant. The young knight Erec, showed courage in a fierce fight, winning Enid. Hearing, however, accusations that he is completely immersed in the joys of marriage, Erec embarks on a journey together with his young wife and in a series of adventures proves that has not lost its former prowess. After the final dangerous adventure spouses learn about the death of his father's Erec, and then to stage magnificent apotheosis take the crown from the hands of King Arthur. In "Klizhece" Chretien connected world of Byzantium and the court of King Arthur, a story about a young son of the emperor of Constantinople, who went to the court of King Arthur - the true Mecca of chivalry. In the poem distinguishable roll with the novel of Tristan and Isolde. As there, the first part of "Klizhesa" is dedicated to the story about love and marriage of the parents of the hero and the circumstances of his birth. In the poem "Lancelot, or novel about a cart" (Lancelot, ou le chevalier de la charrette, OK. 1168) the greatest of Arturovskih knights, Lancelot, first appeared in European literature. This story tells about the kidnapping of Ginevra, wife of Arthur, Lancelot and rescuing her.
After "Lancelot" Chretien wrote the novel "Iveyn, or The Knight with the Lion" (Yvain, ou Le Chevalier au Lion, ca. 1172), probably the most successful of his works, in which he largely repeated problems Erec and Enid, especially in parts of the confrontation between the conjugal and knightly valor. After the wedding Iveyn receives from his wife one year's exemption for the wandering knight, but, carried away, skip the appointed time, and his wife rejected, but all, of course, ends in reconciliation. ChröLtien's last work, left unfinished, - "Perceval, the Story of the Grail" (Perceval, ou Roman du Graal, c.. 1182), where for the first time in literature there is an image of this hero. Here is the first keynote theme of the Grail. Works of ChröLtien chivalrous deeds of Arturovskom yard and Grail wide fame and served as a role model for many authors. From where he established the genre of the medieval courtly romance at the dawn of the Renaissance developed the genre archetypal modern novel.