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TWISTED Alex Eliseevich

( Russian poet)

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Biography TWISTED Alex Eliseevich
Kruchenykh ALEXEI Eliseevich (1886-1968), Russian poet. Born 9 (21) February 1886 in the village. Treaty of Oliva, Kherson Province. family farmer. Father soon moved to Kherson and became a cab driver. In 1902 he graduated from the Kherson city Kruchyonykh trehklasnoe college and moved to Odessa, where he enrolled in art school - one of the best secondary art schools of the time. Passion for painting later explained the influence of school teachers, students who are familiar with the new currents in art.
After graduation in 1906 he returned to Kherson and became a teacher of drawing in the women's professional school. One year later Kruchyonykh left work and went to Moscow. His decision was influenced by familiarity with D. Burliuk, which Kruchyonykh later wrote in his memoirs, "Our way" (1932). In Moscow, had begun working as an artist in a humorous magazine 'alarm', etc.. editions, famous for a series of cartoons and caricatures of writers, artists and scientists under the title "All Moscow in cartoons".

In 1909 he took part in an art exhibition in St. Petersburg. At the same time took his acquaintance with future colleagues on the artistic and literary avant-garde - E. Guro, Kamensky, M. Matyushin. In 1909, having arrived a year in Kherson, Kruchyonykh debut as a novelist, poet, humorist, essayist, art, literary and theater critic. In Kherson newspaper 'Origin edge' published his works, signed by a real name or pseudonym A. Gorelin and A.G. The most significant of the numerous publications in 1909 - essay "Two faces of the power of love", the story of "bloody people" and the poem "half dead", written under the influence of F. Sologub.

Back in 1910 in Moscow, Kruchyonykh actively participated in activities led by the group Burlyuk 'Gilea' - a prototype of the future of futurism.

Since 1912 began his creative collaboration with V. Khlebnikov, they co-wrote and published a poem, "The Game in Hell" (1912), which Kruchyonykh described in his memoirs 'ironic, made a mockery of splint archaic features'. According to Jakobson, in this poem contains the roll with unfulfilled "infernal poem" Alexander Pushkin. "Playing in hell" and the ensuing Kruchenyha poem "Old Love" (1913) have largely been met with negative criticism and evaluated as 'hopeless squalor at rakish pose'.

In 1913 - a crucial year in the creative development of the poet - Kruchyonykh participated in the collection "Slap public taste" by the group 'Gilea' edition of 500 copies. Together with Mayakovsky wrote the Manifesto of the Futurists to the central thesis: 'Throw Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, etc.. etc.. with the ship of modernity '. In this same collection was published 'illogical poem' Kruchenyha "Old forceps sunset patch ...", built on the inventions of the principle of 'mirskontsa'.

Work in the field illogical poetry in 1913 led him to develop the principles abstruse poetry ( 'zaum') - ie. poetry, written 'in their own language' beyond the limits of logic, reason, and consisting of 'unknown words'. Language of 'zaum' were fragments of words, the end, the graphic and phonetic combinations. A classic example of 'zaum' was the poem Kruchenyha holes Blvd schyl ". In it, he wrote the poem "Frota leading edge um" and "Ta sa May", "Go osneg kite" and others. Theory 'zaum' was formulated in the joint Kruchenyhom Khlebnikov collection "The word as such" (1913): 'Painters-budetliane like to use body parts, . cuts, . and budetliane-Speech-creators - chopped words, . half-words and their bizarre artful combinations (high-brow language),
. This provides maximum expressiveness. And this is different language rapidly today that destroyed the old frozen tongue '. Readers shocked Kruchenyha assertion that in his poem "Burrow Blvd schyl" 'more Russian national, than in all of Pushkin's poetry'.

Kruchyonykh let abstruse poetry collections one after the other: "Vzorval" (1913), TE-LI-LE "(1914, in conjunction with Khlebnikov), etc.. In the futuristic, avant-garde spirit of the written and literary studies "Vypyt love Turgenev" (1913), "Devil and Speech-creators" (1913), "Mayakovsky. Vypyt "(1914) and others. Was also set to 'alogical opera' Victory over the Sun "(1913) to music Matyushina.

The internal crisis and the First World War led to the collapse in 1915 of 'Gilea'. Fleeing from the mobilization, Kruchyonykh went to the Caucasus and worked as a drawing teacher in a girls' school g.Batalpashinska. However, spiritually and artistically, he was still connected to Moscow and St. Petersburg, naezzhaya there during the summer vacation. In 1916 he published his poetry collection "The War" and "universal war Kommersant." In the preface to the latter he called the main task zaum 'release perish from unnecessary amenities (through the pointlessness)'.

Living in 1916-1919 in Tiflis, Kruchyonykh along with other futurists - the brothers K. and I. Zdanevich, N. Cherniavsky, V. Gudiashvili etc.. - Participated in the work of literary and poetic group 'Syndicate futurists'. Her program book was a collection of "Learn hudogi" (1917), which includes poems Kruchenyha, was released as his book "Nosoboyka" (1917). From the 'Syndicate of the Futurists' in 1918 to select a group '41 degrees', which included Kruchenykh, poet and director I. Terentyev and others. To promote 'zaum' Kruchyonykh had worked as a critic, and also lectured in the program 'Futura-vseuchbische'.

In 1919 Kruchyonykh moved from Tbilisi to Baku, where he worked in the Baku branch GROWTH, collaborated in a paper published collections of poetry and theoretical. In 1921 he returned to Moscow. Mayakovsky led to the return Kruchenyha in terms of Moscow poets, arranged for his evening at the Polytechnical Museum. In 1921-1923 Kruchyonykh continued to develop the theory of 'zaum' as applied to various kinds of art. This was devoted to his collections of "Phonetics Theater, Sdvigologiya Russian verse" and others.

In 1923 the poet joined the group headed by Mayakovsky postfuturistskuyu 'LEF' ( 'Left Front'), actively opposed to 'decadent' poetry Esenin, devoted to criticism of twelve books (all in 1925), wrote agitpesy. In 1928 prepared a compilation of "15 years of Russian Futurism. 1912-1927 gg. Materials and Notes.

In 1928 was published last book Kruchenyha Techniques Leninist speech, after which his work existed only in typewritten. It was 'published' his poem "Ironiada and Rubiniada" (both 1930), the book "Night doodles" (1932), "Arabesque from Gogol" (1944), "The Book of Hell Sonnets" (1947) and many others. Mayakovsky's death robbed him of the last defender. Kruchyonykh collecting books, sold his typewriter and written collections of portraits of writers in archives and museums. During World War II stayed in Moscow, continued to write poetry, contributed to the 'Windows of TASS'. Recommendation of the Union of Writers, this Ehrenburg, Kruchenyha literally saved from death by starvation.

True connoisseurs of literature their tribute to creativity Kruchenyha during his lifetime. G. Aigi prepared in 1950 a selection of his poems, but the publication did not take place. In 1966, the Central House of Writers was organized by the Jubilee concert Kruchenyha, which became a significant event in the cultural life of Moscow. Life Kruchenyha was very hard, he lived in poverty.

Died Kruchyonykh in Moscow on June 17, 1968.


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