DEPT Dziga( Director, screenwriter, film theorist)
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Biography DEPT Dziga
Werth, Dziga (real name Denis Arkadevich Kaufman) (1896-1954), director, screenwriter, film theorist. One of the founders of the theory of documentary film.
Born January 2, 1896 in Bialystok, Poland. Studied in the mental institute and Moscow University.
Coming to the cinema was marked by his fascination with futurism. In his poem "Dziga Vertov", 1920, he tries to explain the origin of his nickname. The first articles on the theory of cinema, such as the Manifesto "Film-Ki. Coup "1923, published in the journal 'LEF' Mayakovsky, who was a friend. In 1918-1919 he worked as a composer and director newsreel Kinonedelya.
His work has been finding new ways of filming and editing, new methods of organizing material removal. On his initiative, launched production of thematic film magazine under the title "Kinopravda" (1922-1924). Opened new possibilities for cutting as a means of interpreting the events recorded on film, using titles for propaganda effect on the viewer. Each issue had its own artistic design.
Served in the press with the theoretical basis of art documentary film. Articles: "We, he and I," "Kinoks", "coup", "Kino-Eye" denied the right artist for fabrication, seeing the task of art in documenting reality. These articles can not be accepted more 'balanced' part of critics and filmmakers. Over challenged not to notice advanced concepts director.
He founded a group of innovators-documentary, called kinok (short film eye, ie. eye movie camera) was formed in 1919. He was a supporter of the arts in new ways, new methods of documentary photography, called for the development of specific movies, claimed on the screen contemporary themes. These experiments kinoks brought many new things in the news-documentary cinema and the theory of mounting. Vertov wanted to make the invisible visible: to make people's thoughts, their actions, walls, transparent, and explore the world mikroglazom.
The most interesting creative experiment was the film "Cinema-Eye" ( "Life guard), which has received an award at the International Exhibition in Paris. He became the founder of a new kind of journalism - a poetic documentary film. In most of his films and acted as a screenwriter. Life by surprise "- a film about a man in a poetic documentary film neinstsenirovannom. Under the same name he had a theory about the shooting of life caught unawares by the method of surveillance. He believed that it would Kinopravda. In fact, the shooting guard life meant to him about the same as that in the modern cinema is meant by reportage
. In the second half of 1920 continues to develop the figurative language of journalism, how rhythmic organization of action, explores the significance for the installation of intervals (pauses) between movements is studying the most favorable points for shooting
. 'Work on the film "Man with a Movie Camera", . - Vertov wrote in late 1928, . - Require more voltage, . than previous work kino-eye ', . in connection with a large number of points, . were under the supervision, . and complex organizational and technical surveying operations,
. Exclusive to tensions mounting experiments, which were continuously. "Man with a Movie Camera" is located in the heart of life, he, together with her breathing, listening, catches the rhythms of the city and the people. The camera in the hands of man is not only a means of fixation of life, and her party chief. The fall of 1964 critics in 24 countries during the survey conducted in the framework of the thirteenth international festival in Mannheim, called "Man with a Movie Camera" among the 20 best documentaries of all time.
Before coming to the cinema sound Vertov already made attempts to mounting in the light of 'playing' dumb frame. Thus, in the pictures "Sixth of the World," "Eleventh", "Man with a Movie Camera" was an imitation of the sound in the silent film. In the early 1930's makes another discovery, which turned a revolution in sound film. In his first sound film "Symphony of the Donbass, along with industrial noises recorded several replicas of the workers, and three years later removes kinointervyu with one of the heroines of the Dnieper. It is possible that removing the first interview, he just decided increasingly complex creative tasks. But the group is not only recorded the original noises and sounds, she first undertook a series of simultaneous shooting - simultaneous capture images with sound recording. He strove to make his films were not voice-and sound. This film paved the way to the screen newsreels sounds, organized in a symphony.
During the Second World War movies filmed in Alma-Ata. Most newsreels, defense sketches, the film "You, the front!" In 1944 he returned from evacuation and took the last film "The Oath of the young". After reaching the screens of the film has stopped making films, and presided over the wartime cameramen.
In the mature period of his work he developed an individual style editing. The process of gradual complication of mounting documentaries Vertov describes as a natural phenomenon common cultural growth and is a reflection of the overall development of film. Language of images, associations and metaphors was replaced by logical thinking. It was a way of expressing art is created, both for artistic and documentary films. They also enjoyed Eisenstein and Dovzhenko. Documentaries can generalize create poetic images. Although it seems indisputable, but at the time of this truth to be proved.
One of the most valuable of his achievements, theorist, and sealing the theory of documentary film. He believed that the installation - this is not primarily a way to organize the movement, as an essential element of the specific movie. He emphasized the fundamental difference between installing a game and documentary films. Installation documentary begins long before the filmmaker picks up the pieces of exposed film. The materials assembled during the time of production - from the choice of topic and before the movie screen.
Dziga Vertov died Feb. 12, 1954 in Moscow.