Aaron Copland( American composer.)
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Biography Aaron Copland
Copland, Aaron (Copland, Aaron) (1900-1990), American composer. November 14, 1900 in Brooklyn, the son of Jews - immigrants from Russia. After high school studied harmony, . polyphony and composition of P. Goldmark in New York (1917-1921), . summer of 1921 - in special courses at the Music School of Fontainebleau, . and then for three years, he took composition lessons with Nadia Boulanger in Paris,
In the capital of France Copland immersed in the lively atmosphere of postwar Europe - that was the time of formation of European modernism in music. At the young American has had a particularly strong influence works by Stravinsky and the French 'Six' (especially D. Milhaud).
Returning to New York (June 1924), Copland soon became a leader of contemporary American composers, his position, he argued in books, public lectures and, of course, in his own writings.
In Copland's creative evolution can be divided into three main phases. First (1924-1929). For the first period (1924-1929) is characterized by a synthesis of jazz polyrhythm with the technique of composition, typical of the French school of the time. The most prominent examples - Symphony for Organ and Orchestra (1924), "Music for the Theater" (Music for the Theatre, 1925) and Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1926). In the second phase (1929-1935) Copland's music is more abstract: it is achieved ostrodissoniruyuschey harmony, which occurs on the basis dvenadtsatitonovoy ( 'serial') technique, using combinations of polytonal. Savings in material and restrained expression of distinguished piano variations (1930), "Short Symphony? 2" (Short Symphony? 2, 1933) and "Statements" (Statements, 1935). In search of an extremely simple and clear language Copland since 1935 appeals to the American Folklore. This trend is reflected in two types of works: in applied music for radio, . Film and theater - in two ballets, Copland, . "-Billy the Kid" (Billy the Kid, . 1938), . "Rodeo" (Rodeo, . 1942) and "Appalachian Spring" (Appalachian Spring, . 1944), . considered a masterpiece of American Ballet Theater, in deep and serious academic works, . among which are the best Piano Sonata (1941), . Third Symphony (1946), . cycle of romances "Twelve poems of Emily Dickinson" (Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson, . 1950) and the opera "Tender Land" (The Tender Land, . 1954),
. Note, . if applied Copland's music (eg, . his ballets) contains direct quotations from folklore, . then later writings 'high' genres, for the most part used folk motifs mediated, . and in some cases, their material is connected with the early periods of the composer's, . example, . Clarinet in Concert (1948), he returns to the jazz style, . and the Piano Quartet (1950), . Piano Fantasy (1957) and Inscape (1967) - to a more abstract style of the second dry period,
Throughout his life Copland received a lot of awards and prizes. Appalachian Spring brought the author of the Pulitzer Prize (1945); for the music for the film "Heiress" (Heiress), he was awarded the Academy 'For the best music for the film' (1949). In 1964 the composer received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and in 1979 - Kennedy Center award for his contribution to American culture. Among the many companies that have chosen an honorary member Copland - New York-based National Institute of Arts and Letters and the London Royal Academy of Music.
Copland has always preferred not to make the teaching and reading public lectures and performances in the press. He has published in leading journals and newspapers, . and released the book "Why listen to the music" (What to Listen for in Music, . 1939), . "Music and Imagination" (Music and Imagination, . 1952), . "Copland on Music" (Copland on Music, . 1960), . New Music,
. 1900-1960 "(The New Music 1900-1960, 1968; this second, revised edition of the book" Our new music ", Our New Music, 1941). The spread of ideas as a composer have contributed to his lectures and concerts, which he, together with the composer R. Seshnsom suit in New York and at festivals of American music in the Yaddo (r. Saratoga Springs). Copland initiated the establishment of the Union of American composers, who had directed the task material support to musicians, and in 1937-1944 he was president. In 1940, led the department tracks in Berkshire Music Center (Tanglvud). At the invitation of the U.S. State Department Copland in 1941 and 1947 went to 'goodwill visit' in Latin America, and in 1960 made a big international tour with the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
After 1970 Copland virtually nothing is created, but continued to act as a conductor and lecture until the mid 1980's. Copland died in North Tarrytown (pc. New York) on 2 December 1990.