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GRANOVSKY Alexei Mikhailovich

( Director)

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Biography GRANOVSKY Alexei Mikhailovich
Granovsky, Alexey Mikhailovich (1880-1937) (cf.. name - Abraham Azarkh), director, creator GOSET. Honored Artist of the Republic (1926). Born in 1880 in Moscow, grew up in a wealthy Jewish family of intelligent. He studied in Riga. In 1910 he enrolled in the School of Performing Arts in St. Petersburg to AA Sanin (Schonberg), who worked for several years with Stanislavski. Since 1907, Sanin was living in St. Petersburg and worked first in the 'New Drama Theater' and then in the 'old theater'. Sanin predicted Granovsky future 'net producer' (without the actors' work) - and was right. A year later, Granovsky graduated from high school and as a graduation performances successfully put "The Taming of the Shrew" by William Shakespeare and "The Three Sisters Anton Chekhov. It is considered that Granovsky, no one studied, but German director M. Reinhardt theater school in Munich.

In 1914, Granovsky conducted its first staging at the New Theater in Riga (Philip 2, E. Verhaeren, etc.). Arriving in St. Petersburg and in 1917 married and went to journey abroad. In 1918 he returned to Petrograd, where at that time the initiative Yu.Yurjev was organized by the 'Theater of tragedy' (otherwise - 'Theater of tragedy in the circus', because the performances were in the premises of the circus Ciniselli). Granovsky put here "Oedipus King" by Sophocles, "Macbeth" by W. Shakespeare (in the productions were busy MF Andreeva, Yur'ev and other prominent actors). In the same season Granovsky put in the People's Theater "Sadko" and "Faust".

All these works were highly appreciated by the director M. Gorky, Fyodor Chaliapin, Alexander Benois, MVDobuzhinsky, AVLunacharsky. In 1919, Granovsky is beginning to gain Jewish studio, which was later destined to develop into a 'Jewish Theater'. Granovsky built the theater, not having any national traditions (the old traditions of Purim-spiel director vehemently denied), so it is especially important to be educated entirely new cast. Since the beginning of the studio so the actor was found - it was a young Shlioma Vovsi (SM Mikhoels). Later, when GOSET moved to Moscow, and appeared similar to the second actor - VL Zuskin. Throughout history GOSET these two figures define the success of the theater in Russia and in Western Europe.

In 1920, Granovsky, the theater moved to Moscow. The first shown here shows - "An Evening of Sholom Aleichem" and "Before the Dawn" Wouter. In 1921, Granovsky places specially for the representatives of the international proletariat, who came to Moscow at the III Congress of the Comintern, "Mystery-Bouffe" VV Mayakovsky in German (translated by R. Wright). Three performances were played with great success in the premises of State Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard. "Mystery-Bouffe" staged and Meyerhold. Were started a serious discussion, which were determined by each of the directors, their approaches to the poetic material. Meanwhile GOSET got room in Malaya Bronnaya with auditorium for 500 spectators, begin to build a repertoire, came the play "Bewitched" by A. Goldfaden. What followed were performances of "Three Jewish highlight", "Night at the old market", "Journey of Benjamin III", "Air Man" and other. Inspired by cinema, Granovsky made the film "Jewish Happiness" (1925).

In 1928 GOSET went on tour to Western Europe with a large repertoire, theater triumphantly met. After the "Night at the old market in Berlin, behind the scenes came Freud, who wanted to meet with the director. Theater Granovsky applauded renowned directors, writers, artists, cultural workers. These successes did not cause a joyous feeling at home - the press is finished with brief informative notes, . and after the article Lunacharskogo "Facts and Perspectives", . where, . Noting the achievements Granovsky and Theater, . the author calls the success of 'mixed' ( 'in the theater is no trace of any Soviet ideology'), . Commissariat sends abroad 'trustee', . a mandate to find 'a politico-ideological, . and the financial side of the current state of the Jewish Theater ',
. After inspection of the theater is written in the shortest possible time to return home, canceling a planned trip to the U.S..

Granovsky not returned, and over 1,929 responded to newspaper articles, branding 'defector', in an interview talking about plans GOSET. His producer supported Mikhoels, who spoke with articles and interviews, explaining that Granovsky stayed for a time, a number of contracts for performances and films in Germany. But it all came together quite difficult. Reinhardt, . Granovsky signing a contract to stage several performances (in particular, . "Sergeant Grisha A. Zweig), . according to Azarkh-Granovsky (who went in early 1930 in Russia), . nursed a grudge against his pupil, . speaking triumphantly with his theater on reynhardtovskoy stage,
. He interfered in the work of Granovsky so that the case was referred to the court, which won Granovsky. Performance of Zweig was a great success, Granovsky was offered a job in film. In Germany, the director made three films, one iznih, "Taras Bulba", enjoyed a special great success. Later it turned troupe 'Gabima', with Granovsky put "Uriel Acosta" K. Gutzkow.

At the end of 1936 Granovsky seriously ill. It is particularly suffered, knowing that at home from it all turned their backs and try to forget his very name. In some articles about GOSET creator of the theater called Mikhoels.

Granovsky died in Berlin March 14, 1937 in Berlin, behind the coffin of the outstanding producer went all three.


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