Stanislaw Jerzy Lec( Distinguished Polish satirist of the twentieth century)
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Biography Stanislaw Jerzy Lec
Lec, Stanislaw Jerzy (1909-1966). Outstanding Polish satirist of the twentieth century. Stanislaw Jerzy Lec - a worthy successor and continuer of affairs, thoughts, and predictions of Aesop and Socrates, of Rabelais and Voltaire, Gogol and Saltykov-Shchedrin.
World famous Letsu brought his "unkempt thoughts".
In the USSR a small part of the "unkempt thoughts appeared in the magazine" Foreign literature '? 1 in 1965. Separate book "unkempt thoughts" published by the Moscow publishing house 'Progress' in 1978. Significantly increased, "unkempt thoughts" released humanitarian agencies 'Academic Project' in 1999 and published by Crystal St. Petersburg, in 2001.
"Unkempt thoughts" - not just an invaluable storehouse of paradoxical wisdom, but also a means of smashing against totalitarianism and aggressive ignorance, idolatry, slavery ideology and various dictatorships.
Philosopher and writer Stanislaw Jerzy Lec owned a lot of professions - lawyer, poet, farmer and interpreter, theatrical figure and journalist, diplomat and warrior.
Lec was born March 6, 1909 in Lviv, who was then the cultural center of Polish Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Father Letsa, haughtiest Austrian nobleman Benon de Touche-Leetza, died when Stanislav turned almost four years. All the concerns about the education of his son took over his mother Stanislaus, born Adel Safrin, a Polish Jew, came from a wealthy family, where education was valued above all else.
The first years of childhood Letsa held in the estate of his mother - Shershenevtsah in Podolia.
Primordial form of spirituality baby steel is three cultures: Polish, German (Austrian) and Jewish.
Jerzy boy was barely five years since the First World War. There is a collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The front is approaching fast to Lvov. Mother takes away Letsa in Vienna, where he started his school years.
Grandiose shocks occur inside Russia Empire. Most significantly refashioned the European continent
. Probably already in the subconscious of the small Stanislaw Jerzy, are already beginning to emerge early ideas about the imperfections and contradictions of the world, have found a brilliant reflection in some of his "unkempt thoughts"
'In the battle of ideas people are dying'
'If all the military ministry called the Ministry of Defense, I wonder, who then started the war? "
The first school years Letsa held in Vienna. A young Stanislav completing his studies in Lviv, a city which became independent Poland.
Already in high school irrepressible Jerzy excites minds soklassnikov 'murderously inconvenient questions'. Before the paradoxical logic of reflection "extremely polite, but meticulous' Stanislaus, retreat, even the most enlightened of his teachers:
But now school is over. Lec begins to study jurisprudence at the University of Jan Kazimierz in Lvov, and: trying to force in poetry.
In the spring of 1929, at the Recital of young poets, reads one of his early poems Letsa - "Spring:" But this is not an overabundance of youthful feelings Splash. "Spring" - a bitter poem, full of tragic foreboding:
Year 1931. Lec, in collaboration with the young poets, publishes a magazine 'moods', which publishes his new verse - "From the window" and "Poster". Candid call 'chefs new wars'.
In 1933 Lec received a master's degree of law and releasing the first volume of Futurist poetry, entitled "Colors", which published his first comic and satirical 'frashki' - a peculiar kind of miniature of the Polish-epigrams.
Lec produces two consecutive books of satirical verse: "300" (1935) and "pathetic satire" (1936).
Also in 1936 organized together with the poet Leon Pasternak's literary cabaret - 'Theater mockingbirds', or 'Theater Ogoltsov'. Naughty submission newborn theater excitedly deride 'troubadour of militarism and national-patriots', do not like the authorities.
At the same time Lec takes an active part in the famous Lvov Anti-Fascist Congress of culture. This facilitates the closure of many objectionable theater authorities in Poland.
In 1937, the famous Polish poet Julian Tuwim included in its anthology, "Four centuries of Polish frashki" three poems Letsa - debutant. Here are two of them, quite prophetic:
The winner is the law
Blood - not water,
it is not ever sorry.
Print satirical magazines - 'Pins' and 'The Barber of Warsaw' Lec 'joking and always' wins the recognition of the most intellectual of the Polish society. His prickly essay and frashki is especially popular among artistic youth and students.
Cooperation Letsa with the Warsaw newspaper 'popular Ezhednevnik' face great trouble to the poet. After the suspension of the printing of newspapers, Lec forced to go to Romania:
But soon, the disgraced poet and journalist returns to Poland: And at the time 'out of the game': the surprise of many, Lec not without success, the peasantry in Podolia. After serving in the law office in the provincial Chortkiv, preparing for the new struggles for the freedom of thinking and remembering that 'Each age has its own Middle Ages'.
Shortly before the war Lec returned to Warsaw and resumed journalistic activities: hitting friends serviceability, Lec finalizing volume frashek and Podolsky lyric, entitled 'It smells of the earth'. But Hitler invaded Poland, and the book does not have time to go.
The war caught Letsa in Lviv. The Germans have not forgotten the anti-fascist aspirations of the young writer. Already in 1941 Lec arrested and sent to concentration camps under the Ternopil.
'How much of these two thousand years, from Christmas to accommodate years of imprisonment?':
Lec escapes from a concentration camp. Caught, brutally beaten and sentenced to death, but he postponed. In 1943 Lec makes second escape. Again captured. At this time the shot, it seems inevitable.
Execute penalty called veselchak-SS. Playing with a pistol, sadist makes snide Letsa dig the grave, releasing countless jokes about 'skeletistogo clumsy:'. Lec so funny wielded a shovel-headed gull that at some point becomes closer control over the victim: and he turns in his grave, designed Letsu. Shovel in the hands of the satirist is stronger gun. Even the SS uniform is to Letsa cloak of freedom, plus the documents of the enemy and excellent knowledge of German language. The poet, who became a warrior, easily passes the entire General province (the so-called Germans occupied Poland), and is in Warsaw, where he quickly establishes a relationship with the forces of resistance.
From July 1943 Stanislaw Jerzy Lec becoming one of the best and most prolific authors of the Polish underground. In PruszkцЁw he edited the newspaper 'The soldier in the ranks', and on the right bank of the Vistula, in the newspaper 'free people', even prints its 'mocking verses'. In 1944 Lec fighting in the ranks of the Army Ludovit. End the war, Major Polish Army. Own life answer the question, which, much later, put in his winged thoughts: 'To marry with the freedom that it gave posterity? ".
For participation in the war against fascism, was awarded the Cross of the Order of the Renaissance Cavalry of Poland and was awarded the Cross of Merit.
In 1945 Lec settled in Lodz. Together with an old friend - Leon Pasternak, the poet and artist-cartoonist Jerzy Zarubo writer revives the beloved Polish edition of the journal 'Studs'. In 1946 he published a collection of war poems Letsa "Field Notebook" and a volume of satirical poems and frashek "Walk cynic".
In the same 1946 Lec sent to Vienna as a cultural attache for the political mission of the Polish Republic. In 1948 in Poland comes a collection of satirical poems Letsa Life - is frashka. And in 1950 - a collection of new poems, written in Vienna, the city of his childhood. Many of the verse collection - the most interesting reflections on the unity of cultures in Europe.
In Poland, meanwhile, claimed the regime of party dictatorship and the fierce suppression of freedoms of every. Acquire the specific one of the sarcastic 'clarification' Letsa - 'Illiterate forced to dictate'. Looking intently at all the 'charms and prospects' of the communist dictatorship in Poland, Lec in 1950 to make difficult decisions - to go to Israel.
From 1950 to 1952, in Israel it is written, painfully hard-earned, "the Jerusalem manuscript.
Feeling nagging nostalgia, Lec wanders on biblical sites, touring the Middle East. He remembers those who fought and perished with him, dreaming of a free Poland.
There, on the far north, where once I lay in the cradle
Return strive now to there and otpeli:
In 1952 Lec returns to Poland. And it gets the full measure of the new authorities for dissent, independence and the irrepressible desire for freedom. Letsu tacitly allowed to be printed. The only way to express themselves is the work of translators. He goes to his head translations of Goethe, Heine and Brecht. Successfully and takes a lot of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian authors. And not afraid to declare: 'I translate usually only works that express ideas, concerns me'.
1956 marked by strong performances of the Poles against the communist regime. The authorities are forced to weaken the ideological oppression. Poland is gradually becoming a very 'open and free hut socialist camp'. New 'Polish Spring', already in 1957, helps to get the first book "unkempt thoughts" Letsa, which brought the author international fame.
Time is not often brings earthlings and the emergence of such masterpieces as unique as the philosopher-satirist Stanislaw Jerzy Lec. His "unkempt thoughts" - truly an inexhaustible source of joy and faith in the invincibility of the bright start. Besides Letsa unusual book - not just a new word in the art of the aphorism. After all, almost every cruise Letsa thoughts expressed in one or several lines - a phenomenal bunch of conclusions. Unique antidote against fear, hatred and suppression of human thought, planted all kinds of totalitarian regimes. Ingenious and effective weapon against the nationalism of all stripes, as well as any militaristic demagogy. Here are only a fraction of those that for centuries:
'The amount of zeros - a formidable figure'.
'Y' blind faith leer '.
'The richest in the world - Jews: Because they are paying for all'.
'Wisdom is always in excess. After all, few people enjoy it '.
'There will always be the Eskimos, who will advise residents of equatorial Africa, how to behave during the worst heat wave'.
'I thought that sank to the bottom, when suddenly a knock on the bottom'.
'All the shackles of the world constitute a single chain'.
'Oh, if only for a scapegoat, we could and milk! "
'The man has no choice. It must be a man '.
Miniature booklet "unkempt thoughts" with astonishing speed translated into many languages.
Thoughts Letsa be read in Britain and the United States, Italy and France, in Switzerland and Germany.
The charm and wisdom "unkempt thoughts" that they do not claim to truth of last resort, with fantastic ease captivate domyslivat, compare, associate, comparing the past with the present and future.
Paradoxically radiating thoughts Letsa quoted diplomats and politicians from the UN rostrum, say from the stage in many theatrical productions. Aphorisms do not go out of their mouths students.
In 1966, several months before his death, overcoming an incurable disease, Lec time to prepare, including "New unkempt thoughts". Stanislaw Jerzy Lec died in Warsaw on May 7, 1966. Dying as bravely as he lived
. In our country, "unkempt thoughts" Letsa first sounded from the stage of the Moscow Theater of Miniatures New in 1968, . in the show "Without a cylinder", . piercing and tying miniatures Mrozheka, . Beckett, . Ionesco, . Eduardo De Filippo: Supervised then theater satirist Vladimir Polyakov, . and staging performed Andrey Goncharov,
"Unkempt thoughts" Letsa every day are becoming more acute sound. Are becoming in demand and necessary in every aspect of our lives.
To paraphrase the great Pushkin, I want to say: 'Since black thoughts come to you': look in "unkempt thoughts" Letsa - Man, Wise Man and the satirist at all times.