Naguib Mahfouz( First Arab writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize)
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Biography Naguib Mahfouz
Mahfouz, Naguib (Mahfouz, Naguib) (p. 1911) - the first Arab writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize (1988), novelist, playwright, screenwriter, novelist. Author of more than 40 novels and collections of short stories, realistically describing the social and political life of Egyptian society.
Born December 10, 1911 in Cairo, an official in the family.
In 1934 graduated from the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Cairo. In 1938 published the first collection of short stories "whiff of madness" - the contrasts of wealth and poverty in bourgeois society
. First novel Mahfouz "Games of Destiny" (1939), "Radobis" (1943), "Struggle of Thebes" (1944) (published in the journal 'Al Nadjalla al Djadida') - historical, written in a romantic style, is devoted to the distant past of Egypt - the times reign pharaohs
. The author proposes to think about the glorious thousand-year heritage of the country.
After World War II turns to social issues - he is interested in the life of modern Egyptian society. Realistic novel "New Cairo" (1945) describes the decay of the petty-bourgeois family, about life choices of Egyptian youth in the prewar years. Panorama of various segments of Egyptian society in the period of the anti-British uprising in 1919 until the end of the Second World War is reflected in the novels "Khan al-Khalili (1946)," Street Middak "(1947)," The Beginning and the End "(1949).
From 1947 to 1956 working on a trilogy of novels entitled to the names of the old quarters of Cairo, Bein al-Kasreyn, Qasr al-Shouk (for it has received the State Prize of Egypt in 1957) and Al-Sukkariya. The story in the 1956-1957 trilogy describes the life of three generations of a family of Cairo's middle class in the period from 1917 to 1952 against the backdrop of social and political events taking place in the country.
1950-1960-s steel for Egypt by major social upheavals. In January 1952, came to power inspired by the ideas of national revival young officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Because of distrust of the intelligentsia, the military initially did not participate in social reform. But the situation changed after the Suez war of 1956 and especially after the proclamation of Nasser in 1962, the Socialist Charter, which became the program of economic and political development. To raise the level of national culture, the Government needs the participation of intellectuals, and it is actively involved in unstarted. Uniting the nation, as a firm position usually doubting intellectuals, many have contributed to foreign policy events - Israel's occupation of Egyptian territory. In the press, theater, cinema, literature and TV writers and performers to explain to the people that the Egyptians - not slaves, and that the nation should have the dignity, courage and clear purpose.
Most of the modern Egyptian writers, including Naguib Mahfouz, can be attributed to the social realists, are reluctant to isolate themselves from the uneducated segments of society. According to observers, . New Egyptian social realism 'meets the requirements of modern Egyptian culture and the vital interests of the country, he can achieve some synthesis of the struggle for national independence, . social reform and the needs of the arts',
The writers of the new Egypt had to fight for existence in the book market of the country, tk. before the revolution it prevailed cheap, popular editions. In addition, the country actually used three languages - classical, contemporary and colloquial. Naguib Mahfouz has stylistically enrich literary Arabic language, almost without conversation, though the heroes of his works can be normal ordinary people, such as truck drivers from the poorest areas of Cairo.
In 1959 wrote a highly controversial from the standpoint of Islamic fundamentalism, the novel "Avlad Haratin - okolobibleyskuyu allegory, including prototypes of Muhammad and Jesus. The novel was considered too controversial and was banned in Egypt. In 1960, the writer's style is changing - it departs from the realistic manner of presentation and wrote a short, with the rapid development of novel, including the free flow of consciousness and dialogue in biblical style - "The Way" (1964). Novels "The talk on the Nile" and "Hostel Miramar, published in 1966, reflected the events of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and emerged after the problem. The collection of short stories Mahfouz "God's World" (1963), "House of ill repute" (1965), "Taverna black cat" (1968), "Under the canopy" (1969). The heroes of his stories feel lonely and abandoned on the background of the changes, . that occur in the traditional way of Egyptian society - "The Thief and the Dog" (1961), . Light of God "(1963), . "Quail and Autumn" (1964), . "Poor" (1965), . "Honeymoon" (1971),
After 1960, the Egyptian government has set the task of creating their own cinema and the production of realistic films with social content that meet the objectives of national revival. In Cairo, opened Film Institute, to create screenplays began to attract serious writers, including Naguib Mahfouz. Criticism and the audience warmly received the new films - drama about ordinary people, built at the original Arabic material. Many of the works of Mahfouz had been filmed or staged for the theater.
The political struggle in Egypt is becoming more acute. In 1966 he was hanged literary critic of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood ideologue Sayyid Qutb, in his time 'open' Mahfouz. The writer suffered heavy defeat of Egypt in the Arab-Israeli War of 1967. This Mahfouz himself advocated normalization of relations with Israel and the maintenance of peaceful relations between neighboring countries, contrary to radical Islamists, calling for jihad. In 1970-1980-e of the novel, demonstrating the high level of skill of the Egyptian writer, civil sound of his work: "Mirrors" (1972), "Dear Sir" (1975), "The epic hara fishey" (1977), "Night of a thousand nights" (1982) and others
. In 1988, . after the award of Naguib Mahfouz the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the realism and richness of colors of the Arab story, . which is important for all humanity ', . There were many rumors about the, . What was guided in its choice of the Nobel Committee,
. On the one hand, called the commitment of the writer's epic form in the spirit of conservative idealism (for which in 1929 received the Nobel Prize and Thomas Mann's novel "Buddenbrooks"). Named and political motives related to the settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict
. In the period of heightened domestic political situation and frequent attacks by Islamic extremists, many works of Egyptian authors, . including Naguib Mahfouz, . were banned as stokes radical nationalist sentiment,
. To protect against censorship Egyptian writers were forced to glut their works symbols, making it very difficult to read their works, people who are not familiar with its value.
In October 1994 near his home on Mahfouz was attacked by Islamic fundamentalists who were dissatisfied with the secular thrust of his work. As a result, received a knife wound - because of the injury to his right hand - he is forced to resort to the Secretary, dictating their notes for the column in the weekly Al-Ahram Weekly '. After the shooting, several magazines, with the approval of the censorship, published several of his works. Now he turns to the genre of colorful sketches, based on dreams.
In Egypt, Naguib Mahfouz - a respectable public figure. In the Cairo area Muhandisin he installed intravital bronze statue. His position on policy and public life is characterized by restrained and the lack of extremes. Thus, after the publication of Khomeini's fatwa, sentencing to death of Salman Rushdie, Mahfouz accused Khomeini of 'intellectual terrorism' in relation to the writer, but acknowledged that Rushdie had no right to insult the Muslim sanctities.
Creative way and citizenship Naguib Mahfouz shows how complex, constantly changing political environment occurs creativity of Arab writers. Oriented towards national revival, . they seek their books, . where there is a particular concern for the fate of their compatriots, . awaken the slumbering consciousness of the masses, . helping people understand their place in society, . preserving the uniqueness of their culture.,