Moliere (Poquelin) Jean-Baptiste( French poet and actor, creator of the classic comedy.)
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Biography Moliere (Poquelin) Jean-Baptiste
Moliö¬re (Poquelin), Jean-Baptiste (Moliö¬re (Poquelin) Jean-Baptiste) (1622-1673), French poet and actor, creator of the classic comedy.
Born January 13, 1622 in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin, the court upholsterer and Royal valet, and Mary, daughter of the private upholsterer Louis Kresse. At the age of ten, lost his mother. In 1631-1639 he studied at the Jesuit Clermont College, . where, . in addition to theological disciplines, . taught ancient literature and ancient languages, showed great interest in learning; translated into French poem "On the nature of things," the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius,
. In 1640 he studied jurisprudence at the University of Orleans, in early 1641 passed the exam for the title of Bachelor of Laws. In April-June 1642 substituted for his father in the position of royal valet. 6 January 1643 renounced the title of the royal upholsterer. June 30, 1643, organized together with the family Bejart 'brilliant theater'; put tragedy, tragicomedy, pastoral, adopted the name of Moliere. After a series of failures theater ceased to exist. The remnants of the troupe went to the province.
In 1645-1658 the troupe performed in the towns and castles of Normandy, Brittany, Poitou, Gascony and Languedoc. By 1650 Moliere was its acknowledged head. Gradually, her repertoire leading place occupied comedy. In a competitive environment with the Italian comedians Moliere himself was to write a small little pieces (divertissements), adding to the French medieval farce elements of Italian comedy of masks (commedia dell'arte). Their success prompted him to turn to larger forms: in 1655 created his first five-act comedy in verse, "a madcap, or all out of place" (L'Etourdi, ou Les Contretemps); her in 1656 was followed by "Love quarrel" (Le DöLpit amoureux).
By 1658 Moliere troupe became the most popular in the French province. Thanks to the patronage of the Duke of Orleans, . brother of Louis XIV, . she got the opportunity to speak on Oct. 24, 1658 before the royal court with the tragedy P. Corneille "Nycomed" and the farce of Moliere's "Love Doctor", "Nycomed" was greeted with cold, . but "Love Doctor" furor, . that decided the fate of the troupe: she was awarded the title of 'King Troupes Brother' and gave the theater scene Petit Bourbon,
. Since that time, Moliere finally refused tragic roles, and began to play only comic characters
. In 1659 set a one-act comedy in prose "Funny prude" (Les PröLcieuses ridicules), . which ridiculed the histrionics and bombast pretsioznogo style, . cultivated in the literature (a group of poets led by J. Shaplenom) and secular Saloons,
. It was a resounding success, but also spawned a lot of enemies in the light of. From that day on Moliere's life into a constant struggle with. In 1660 with equal success was played sitcom "Sganarelle, or the Imaginary Cuckold" (Sganarelle, ou le Cocu imaginaire), interpreted the traditional theme of infidelity. In the same year the king gave the troupe of Moliere's theater building Palais Royal.
Theater season at the new stage was opened on Feb. 4, 1661 the play "Don Garcia of Navarre, or the Jealous Prince" (Dom Garcie de Navarre, ou le Prince jaloux), but its philosophical comedy was not accepted by the general public. In June, successfully hosted the "School for Husbands" (L'Ecole des maris), scorned his father's tyranny and defend the principles of natural upbringing, it marked a turn to the genre of the author's comedies of manners, it guessed already features high comedy. The first truly classic comedy was "School for Wives" (L'Ecole des femmes), set in December 1662, it featured a deep psychological development of the traditional themes of family and marriage. The charges of plagiarism, . the weakness of the plot and bad taste Moliere said in 1663 comedy "Critique of The School for Wives" (La Critique de l'Ecole des femmes) and "Versailles Impromptu" (L'Impromptu de Versailles), . in which gay and evil ironically over their ill-wishers (navette, . salon ladies, . pretsioznymi poets and actors Burgundy hotel),
. Those not squeamish by any means, and even Moliere was accused of incest (allegedly married to his daughter); support of Louis XIV, who became the godfather of his first son, put an end to gossip
. In 1664 became a permanent organization to participate in the court festivities, . writing and placing the comedy-ballets: in January 1664 was played "Forced marriage" (Le Mariage forcöL), . in May - "Princess Elis" (La Princesse d'Elide) and "Tartuffe, . or hypocrisy "(Le Tartuffe, . ou l'Hypocrite), . brutal parody of religious bigotry,
. Scandal, the king banned the performance. Require even send the author on the fire. In the spring of 1665 was subjected to the ban and "Don Giovanni, or the Stone Feast" (Dom Juan, ou le Festin de pierre), wore a sharply anti-clerical nature of. In 1666 Moliere put high comedy "Misanthrope" (Le Misanthrope), adopted by the general public indifference. He continued to write for the court festivities comedy-ballets and plays-pastoral. On stage, the Palais Royal, with great success were two comedies in the style of popular farces, which poked fun at medical science and its ministers - "Love is the healer" (L'Amour möLdecin) and "Doctor willy-nilly" (Le MöLdecin malgröL lui).
In August 1667 Moliere decided to submit to the Palais Royal softened version of "Tartuffe" under the new name "Impostor" (L'Imposteur), but immediately after the premiere, it was banned by the Paris Parliament. In February 1668 it was played comedy "Amphitryon" (Amphitryon). This was followed by "George Dandin, . or bamboozled husband "(George Dandin, . ou le Mari confondu), . a known folk story about a clever wife and credulous husband (July 1668), . and "Miser" (L'Avare), . in which the object of ridicule were usury and thirst enrichment (September 1668),
In early 1669 Moliere made lifting the ban to "Tartuffe". In 1669-1671 he made one after another several comedies-ballets: "Monsieur de Pursonyak" (Monsieur de Pourceaugnac), . "Brilliant lovers" (Amants magnifiques), . "Countess d'Eskarbarya" (La Comtesse d'Escarbagnas) and the best of them - "Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme" (Le Bourgeois gentilhomme), . as well as the tragedy-ballet "Psyche" (PsychöL),
. Played in May 1671 farcical comedy "The Tricks of Scapa Flow" (Les Fourberies de Scapin) caused a new round of controversy - the author was accused of pandering plebeian tastes and retreating from the classic rules. In March 1672, presented to the public high Moliere comedy "bluestocking" (Les Femmes savantes), ridiculing salon fascination with science and philosophy, and neglect of women to family responsibilities.
1672 proved to be difficult for Moliere. Out of the life of many of his friends and relatives, cooled his relationship with King, has considerably worsened health. Winter 1672-1673 wrote his latest comedy-ballet "The Imaginary Invalid" (Le Malade imaginaire), which returned to the topic of medical charlatans and gullible patients. February 17, 1673 at its fourth submission he had a stroke, and a few hours later he died. Church officials refused to bury him according to the Christian rite. Only after the intervention of the King of Moliere's body was buried Feb. 21 at the cemetery Sv.Iosifa. In 1817 his remains were moved to Pere Lachaise.
Moliere has left a rich legacy - more than 32 dramatic works, written in a variety of genres: a farce, divertissement, a comedy-ballet, Pastorale, situation comedy, comedy of manners, domestic comedy, high comedy and pr. He is constantly experimenting, creating new forms and transformed the old. His first experience as a playwright was the divertissement, linking the medieval farce to the Italian commedia dell'arte. "Madcap" and "Love quarrel" became the first major (in five acts) poetic comedy unfolded intrigue, lots of characters and plot various provisions of. Nevertheless, his relationship with the popular (farce) tradition has never been interrupted: it not only puts into his big comedy some farcical elements ( "Tartuffe", . "Monsieur de Pursonyak", . "The Bourgeois Gentleman"), . but kept returning to the form of farce in one act and three-act comedies ( "Funny prude", . "Tricks Scapa", . "Forced marriage", . "Love is the healer", . "Doctor in Spite of Himself"),
Moliere tried to develop the genre created by P. Corneille's heroic comedy in Don Garcia, but abandoned it after the failure of this play. In the early 1660's he created a new genre of comedy - high comedy, . corresponding to the classic rules: five-act structure, . poetic form, . unity of time, . place and action, . intrigue, . based on the clash of views, . Intelligent characters ( "School for Wives", . "Tartuffe", . Don Giovanni, . "Misanthrope", . Miserly ", . "Women Scientists"),
. Scientists believe a model of women's classic comedy, while Don Juan goes beyond the classic rules - it is written in prose, it violated all three of unity. Essential features of high comedy was an element of tragedy, most clearly manifested in the Misanthrope, sometimes called a tragicomedy, and even tragedy.
An important achievement was the creation of Moliere's particular form of comedy - a comedy-ballet, where he joined the poetic word, music and dance. He gave a comical interpretation of the ballet allegory, dramatized dance numbers and organically incorporated them into the action of the play ( "Bores", "forced marriages", "Princess Elis", "Tartuffe" and many others). It sees herald of the French opera
. Moliere's comedies involve a wide range of problems of modern life: the relationship between fathers and children, . Education, . Marriage and family, . moral state of society (the hypocrisy, . greed, . vanity, etc.), . social estates, . Religion, . Culture, . science (medicine, . philosophy), etc.,
. This set of themes addressed at the Paris material, except for "Countess d'Eskarbanya", which takes place in the province. Moliere takes the stories not only from real life, he draws them in antique (Plautus, Terence) and Renaissance Italian and Spanish Drama (N. Barbieri, H. Secchi, T.de Molina), as well as in the French medieval folk tradition (Fabliau, farces).
The main feature of Moliere's characters - independence, activity, ability to organize their happiness and their destiny in the struggle with the old and outdated. Each of them has their own beliefs, their own belief system for which it stands in front of his opponent, the opponent's piece is required for the classic comedy, because in effect it is developing in the context of discussion and debate. Another feature of Moliere's characters - their ambiguity. Many of them have not one, but several qualities (Alceste from "Le Misanthrope," "Don Giovanni"), or on a course of action is the complication or a change in their characters (Agnes in "School for Wives," Argon, in "Tartuffe, George Dandin ). But all the negative characters have one thing - a violation of the measures. Measure - the main principle of the classic aesthetics. In Moliere's comedies, it is identical to common sense and natural (and therefore morality). These carriers are often representatives of the people (the maid in "Tartuffe," the wife plebeian Jourdain in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme).
Showing imperfect people, Moliere implements the main principle of comedy - through laughter to harmonize the world and human relations. However, in Tartuffe, Don Juan, Misanthrope (partly in "School for Wives" and "Miserly"), he departs from this principle. Evil triumphs in the "Misanthrope" and in "Tartuffe" and "Don Giovanni", although his media and punished, it remains essentially undefeated, because too much ingrained in people's lives. In this - a deep realism Moliere
. Works Moliere, . great comedy, . creator of the classic comedy, . had an enormous impact not only on the dramatic art of France (Lesage, . Beaumarchais), . but the whole world drama (Sheridan, . Goldoni, . Lessing, and others), in Russia, his followers were Sumarokov, . Knyazhnin, . Kapnist, . Krylov, . Fonvizin, . Griboyedov.,
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