Ada Byron August( Programmer)
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Biography Ada Byron August
August Ada Byron (Ada Bayron) (10.12.1815 Year - 1850)
. December 10 is called the Day after the programmer is also born on this day of the first representatives of this profession is not too old Augusta Ada Lovelace, . the only daughter of the famous English poet George Gordon Byron and his wife Annabella Milbank.,
. Byron's daughter spent a few touching lines in "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", . but in a letter to his cousin in advance worried: "I hope, . that God gave her anything, . but not the poetic gift ... "Even less was intended to promote the development of the daughter of literary inclinations mother, . which in the light of the enthusiasm for the exact sciences was nicknamed "princess of parallelograms",
. Ada received an excellent education, including in the field of mathematics. By 1834 is her first acquaintance with the distinguished mathematician and inventor Charles Bebidzhem (1791-1871), creator of the first digital computer program control, which he called "analytical".
. It works with address and command codes, data were entered using punch cards. Basic programming also laid Bebidzhem. Despite almost forty years of work of its creator, the car has not been completed, ahead of not only the needs but also the technical possibilities of his time. Many of the ideas Bebidzha simply could not be implemented on the basis of mechanical devices and have been claimed only after a century, the development of the first electronic computers. It is clear that contemporaries regarded the works Bebidzha as to, at least, extravagant eccentricity. Wife of the famous British mathematician of the time De Morgan, . under whose leadership Ada Aug. studied mathematics, . both described their first visit to Bebidzhu: "While some of the guests in amazement looking at this amazing device with such a feeling, . with some, . say, . savages the first time they see a mirror or hear the rifle, . Miss Byron, . still quite young, . able to understand the workings of the machine and appreciated the dignity of a great invention ",
. Bebidzh found in Ada not only a grateful listener, but also a faithful assistant. He sincerely attached to the girl, the former is almost the same age his daughter who died early.
In 1835, Mr.. Ada Byron married William, the eighteenth Lord King, who later became the first Earl of Lovelace. (In some Russian publications with the title of the family associated word Lovelace Lovelace, is a mistake: Lovelace - the name of a popular hero at the beginning of last century novel, Richardson's "Clarissa Harlem", . become a household word to describe tape, . seducer),
. My husband had nothing against science activities spouses and even encouraged it to them. However, highly appreciating her mental faculties, he lamented: "What a great general you could be!" The appearance of children at the time diverted from Hell classes in mathematics, but in early 1841, Mr.. Bebidzhu she wrote: "I hope that my head might be useful to you in realizing your goals and plans in the next three or four, maybe more years."
. At the request of Bebidzha, Ada took up the translation of the Italian military engineer sketch Louis Frederico Menabrea (in the future, Professor of Mechanics University of Turin, one of the leaders of the struggle for the unification of Italy, since 1867, Mr.
. - Its Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs). Menabrea in 1840, listening to lectures in Turin Bebidzha, recorded them in detail, and in his essay was first given a full description of the analytical machine Bebidzha and his ideas of programming algorithms. He wrote: "The process of calculation by using algebraic formulas, written on punched cards, similar to that used in looms Jakkar. All intellectual activity is reduced to writing formulas suitable for computation, machine made, and of some simple instructions, the sequence in which these calculations must be made.
. Lady Lovelace not only translated the essay Menabrea, but also provided him with extensive commentary, which are almost three times the amount exceeded the original text
. All comments, their overall structure and content have been discussed and agreed with Bebidzhem. Known for its intolerance of other people's opinion, Bebidzh, however, was delighted with the original elaborations of his pupil: "The more I read your notes, the more amazed at your intuition ... I do not want to part with your excellent analytical philosophical consideration of my car ... "
Book Menabrea with comments signed by the initials A. A. L. (Ada Augusta Lovelace), was published in August 1843. Paying tribute to both authors, . Bebidzh wrote: "The totality of these works (Menabrea and Lovelace) is for those, . who is able to follow the course of their reasoning, . clear demonstration, . practically any operations of mathematical analysis can be performed with the help of machines ",
. This Bebidzh so to the end and not be reconciled with the concept of Ada, which was later Turing styled by the sixth postulate of the opponents of the idea of a thinking machine: "Analytical Engine does not purport to create something really new. The machine can perform only what we are able to prescribe it. "
In comments Lovelace were given the first three in the world computing program, compiled it for the machine Babbage. The simplest of them and most detailed - program for the system of two linear algebraic equations with two unknowns. When parsing the program was first introduced the concept of working memory (working variables) and use the idea of sequential changes in their content. This idea is one step before the assignment operator - one of the fundamental operations of all programming languages, including machine. The second program was compiled to calculate the values of the trigonometric functions with multiple repetition of a given sequence of computational operations for the procedure Lovelace introduced the concept of the cycle - one of the fundamental structures of structured programming,
. In the third program, designed to calculate Bernoulli numbers were already used recursive nested loops. In his comments, Lovelace was also of great conjecture about, . that the computational operations can be performed not only with numbers, . but also with other objects, . without which computers would have remained so only powerful quick calculators.,
. After completion of the translation and commentary Ada suggested Bebidzhu, . that she would advise people, . interested in using computers, . so Bebidzh not distracted from the main work to bring his analytical machine,
. But the time for computers has not yet arrived, the crowd of users in no hurry to get advice from Lady Lovelace, in fact - in 1842, Mr.. British government refused Bebidzhu financial support of its development. Bebidzh was ready to do anything to get the necessary money. In particular, together with their spouses Lovelace became fascinated with the idea of creating "a truly scientific, mathematical" system of betting on the races, which would give the correct gain. As expected, the "system" has not worked and has brought not only disappointed, but large financial losses. The most steadfast supporter of her was the Countess Lovelace - she continued to play hard, often in secret from her husband and Bebidzha, trying to improve the system. At this, she lost almost all of their personal funds. Moreover, in the early 50-ies, and her health suddenly deteriorated, and in 1852,. Ada Lovelace died at the age of 37, as her father, and was buried beside him in the family vault Byron.
. The name of Ada Lovelace was resurrected from obscurity in the mid 1930's in connection with the work of British mathematician Alan Turing, . who introduced the concept of the logical structure of the algorithmic, . known as the Turing machine, . and the subsequent establishment of the first electronic computers.,
. By the end of the 1970 study conducted by the Ministry of Defense, revealed a lack of high-level language, which would support all major phases of the software
. The use of different programming languages in various applications has led to incompatibility of programming, . duplication of development and other undesirable phenomena, . including the rising cost of software, . many times greater than the cost of the computing,
. Out of the crisis was seen in the development of common programming languages, including his support and methodology of. All three components of this project were developed very carefully with the assistance of the best-qualified specialists from different countries. In May 1979, Mr.. winner of the contest design language was recognized in Ada, named after Augusta Ada Lovelace, and proposed by a group led by Frenchman Jean Ishbia. The prototype of this language was a programming language named after Blaise Pascal, who in the age of nineteen, in 1624, developed the project "Pascaline" or put another way, "Paskaleva wheels" - the first mechanical computing machine. With the advent and widespread use of personal computers Ada largely lost its significance, but is still used as high-level language for programming, operating in real time.
. Interestingly, in honor of Ada Lovelace named in America as two small towns - in the states of Alabama and Oklahoma
. In Oklahoma there is a college of her name. It seems to be - a little, . but, . however, . are people, . sincerely believe, . that today the glory (or, . at least, . popularity) Ada Lovelace eclipsed the glory of her famous father, . and that its contribution to world civilization, . at least, . commensurate with the contribution of the great poet.,