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Duke Ellington

( Musician)

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Duke Ellington (29.04.1899 year - the year 24.05.1974)

Once, our great poet Anna Akhmatova wrote: 'When you knew of a litter grow verses ...'. Art of Jazz, which is now listed in the discharge of elite, which granted the prestigious scenic grounds, was born and grew up not even from the litter. Port, discordant New Orleans gave birth to a rhythmic, almost obscene music in neighborhoods squatters, gang brothels, dirty and cheap dance halls. And the fact that only a few decades, a very specific musical genre, made his way to the aristocrats of merit just a few people. True, those were the real geniuses. And one of those few - Duke Ellington.

He was not born in the slums, as, say, the same Louis Armstrong. Ellington's family lived in Washington and belonged to the estate, which can be called a Negro middle class of that era.

. He was born April 29, 1899 and was named Edward Kennedy Ellington (jazz nickname Duke - Duke came to him later)
. Since childhood Edward Kennedy differed beautiful manners and perfectly correct speech, demanding unconditional respect for yourself. Perhaps even then he felt that was created for a great role in this world.

When Duke was seven years old, his mother decided to teach him music - so it was taken in decent homes. But seriously piano man was carried away only 15 years old, he wanted to speak at the dances to please girls. One of these girls became his wife, when Duke was barely 19 years old. A year later they had a son Mercer, who later becomes a musician in the orchestra of his father. Meanwhile, Duke, spellbound with tales of New York, where jazz musicians in respectable restaurants and dance halls of Harlem to pay a fortune, gathered his small orchestra, and moved with him tempted to win the New York audience. It was in 1923.

. Ensemble from Washington, began his career in a fairly well-known Harlem 'Exclusive Club', and then began to act gangster cabaret 'Hollywood', which definitely has a special sound of Duke Ellington's orchestra, in particular, the style of 'jungle'
. With the orchestra came to Duke in the 'Cotton' - a prestigious entertainment venue gangsters, the New York elite. It not only gave the show for visitors to the club, but also broadcast them on the radio throughout the country. Thus, by early 30-ies Duke and his band knocked out in the first series of the Americas popularity.

Duke was not only the music director of the orchestra - he was its master. Researchers at Duke Ellington's life and work still wonder: Duke was not a great musician, was not a great composer, arranger was not a great or even a great manager. However, with all the talent a little, he skillfully combine them - because of his famous orchestra and repertoire, and style, and commercial success.

30 s. The era of big bands - big bands. There were a lot - brilliant, revered to this day: Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Glenn Miller ... However, Ellington's orchestra took some special place in this series - the classic thoroughness, aristocratic rigor, academic seriousness. They are admired not only simple fans of dance music, but also respected masters of philosophy, literature, painting, symphonic music. Valuing Ellington was a good tone in high society.

Orchestra flourished. In all senses. But World War II began, the country has no time for entertainment, to replace the big band came to the small group of 'combo', which consisted of virtuoso solo musicians. Large orchestras financially losing competitive and affordable mobile 'combo'. After the war, almost all the big bands went bankrupt and was dissolved. With some difficulty making ends meet, and Duke Ellington's Orchestra.

In order not to ruin, Duke played with his orchestra as an accompaniment to the records of pop numbers then-fashionable male and female singers. Often, the name plates of the orchestra was not even mentioned. And in jazz there were radical reformers who created the style 'bebop' - music is not similar to the preceding. The audience was carried away by a new fashion, the orchestra of Duke Ellington's perceived as something outdated, prababushkino, no one else needed.

. Young people, packed to the rafters Newport Jazz Festival in 1956, most of them did not know about the existence of the Duke Ellington Orchestra
. Therefore, when the Duke with his musicians came on stage, there was silence in the hall of perplexity. The orchestra played a couple of rooms - room bored. But they played 'Crescendo in Blue' - the old, well-known play Duke, soloist in her tenor saxophonist Paul Gonzalves. Perhaps fury musicians gave them energy, but they made a furious pace. A few minutes later stunned hall jumped to his feet. Fearing that there might be riots, producer of the festival asked Duke to finish the play, but unreal saxophonist Gonzalvesa was no longer stop. His solo lasted six and a half minutes. And even in writing this produces a magical effect. Hall raged in ecstasy. But these were people age the first rock 'n' roll - acute and insane.

The next day became a sensation in Newport content of all newspapers. Recording of the festival came out in hundreds of thousands of copies. Duke Ellington Orchestra once again regained the glory of one of the best. Now forever.

By that time, Duke himself was no longer a vain young man. By the maestro had come to realize their artistic and social mission. He writes and performs large-scale orchestral works. France awards him the Order of the Legion of Honor, he performs with the orchestra in the White House and the residence of the Queen of England. Incidentally, for the latest Duke wrote a special 'Royal Suite', released a record in one copy and gave it to the royalty. Truly, a gift from the Duke queen!

In the spring of 1972 with Ellington's got cancer. By the time away from the life of many of the old fellow of Duke. And May 24, 1974 maestro has left this world. If you compare his life with his music, you can say: 'The caravan passed through the desert and disappeared into the night'.


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