Lesya Ukrainka( Poet, translator, dramatist)
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Biography Lesya Ukrainka
Lesya Ukrainka (Larissa Kosach - Kvitka) (25.02.1871 year - the year 01.08.1913)
Poet, translator, dramatist, writing in two languages - Russian and Ukrainian. Author drama "The Stone host, plays" Blue Rose "and numerous poems, and poems. Ukrainian translation of Goethe, Schiller, Heine: The founder of the Ukrainian society of young poets "Pleiades.".
Lesya Ukrainka born February 25, 1871 in g. Novograd-Volyn, in that part of Ukraine, which was part of the Russia Empire.
. In family is not alien to the high spiritual interests: the mother - writer, . who worked under the pseudonym: Olena Pchilka (Her poetry and short stories in their native language for children, . well known in Ukraine), . father - well-educated landowner, . very fond of literature and painting,
. The house Kosachev often met writers, artists and musicians, arranged the evening and home concerts. Uncle Lesi (so called her in the family and it became her home name pen name.) - Michael Dragomanov, . subsequently friendly tutelary niece and sundry who helped her, . - Was a renowned scientist, . public figure, . had lived abroad in France and Bulgaria,
. He took acquaintance with Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Victor Hugo, was aware of all the latest literary and political events and often growing library of nieces parcels from - abroad.
. Favorite all Lesya initially grew healthy and fun
. She has not received systematic education, as did not attend school. Her unique and rather strict home teacher was his mother, Olga. It has developed its own training program, distinguished by the breadth and thoroughness, but a strict system it was not and this lack of a poet herself afterwards very sorry. My father tried to insist, . to invite teachers from Forest High School, . but how could one argue with an imperious, . proudly Olga Petrovna, . accustomed to, ,
. Exceptionally talented, . receptive, . Vulnerable, . deep, . true, . musical talent, . (she started playing and composing little pieces of music from five years) at the age of eight years, wrote the first poem, . Lesya in 1881 suddenly fell seriously ill,
. She was tormented by unbearable pain in his right leg. First thought that she had rheumatic fever, were treated with baths, ointment, herbs, but to no avail. Pain was taken over.
Doctors finally were able to determine that it is - bone tuberculosis. On the musical career Lesi was given up. After the first, difficult, but very unsuccessful, the operation left hand crippled! Then something in the eyes of the fragile girl first appeared Grief. It is in the future, though a slight veil, will envelop all of its creativity. Now many months in the year, the girl should stay in bed, do not make sudden movements, all while experiencing excruciating pain ...
. Parents do not sdavalis.Oni drove the girl to the sea, to the mud baths and swimming, turned to the best doctors, traditional medicine, foreign professors in Germany, but all in vain
. The disease, if and retreated, it was not long. Forest now had only to recall her mysterious night walks through the estate park in Kolodyazhne (Kosachev estate in Volhynia), . when she listened and it seemed, . she heard a sleepy breath leaves and grasses, . seen bathing in a pond witch - mermaid Mavka, . woven into the hair yellow - white water lily, . Catching the rays of the moon with his hands ....,
. On these outings adults and did not know then! Later, . when his mother spoke Forest, . that the establishment of its excellent drama - extravaganza "Forest Song" (1911) affected only the images of classical literature, . poet boldly denied it: "I do not think badly of Volyn Forest,
. Remembering them, wrote "drama - extravaganza" in their honor, and she brought me much joy! "(L. Ukrainka - AE. Crimean * October 14, 1911) (* AEKrymsky - scientist, scholar and historian - orientalist, big drugL Kosach, who helped her in the processing and recording of folk legends and songs, the author.)
. It is always and everywhere trying to find joy, even in small! It lived indomitable spirit
. Selflessly, . night, . studied languages: Bulgarian, . spanish, . Latin, . Ancient Greek, . Italian, . Polish, . German, . not to mention the English and French, . geography, . history and East Asian cultures, . history of art and religion, . and for his younger sisters in the 19 - year old age (!) wrote a textbook: "Ancient History of the Oriental peoples",
. Michael Pavlyk - Ukrainian writer and political activist - remembered one of his meetings with the poet in L'viv in 1891: "Lesya simply stunned me with their education and subtle mind: I thought that she lives only poetry, but this is not so. For his age it is - a brilliant woman. We spoke with her for very long, and every word I saw intelligence and deep understanding of poetry, science and life! "
. Forest was only twenty years! A year ago, in 1893, in Lviv (Western Ukraine), published a slender book of her poems called: "On Wings of Song" and warmly greeted by critics and the public
. The book quickly made her popular.
. Ivan Franko wrote admiringly about the "miracle of life-affirmation" - verses a young poet, who seemed to have grown out of Ukrainian songs and tales.
. "Reading soft and relaxed or cold rezonerskie works Ukrainians - men and comparing them with those cheerful, . strong and courageous, . yet, . such sincere words Lesia Ukrainka, . help thinking, . this patient, . poor girl - perhaps the only man in the whole Ukraine! "- with bitter humor concluded Franko.,
. Already in the early lyric readers admired their command word, . living figurative language, . wealth of rhymes and similes, and that is important - a hidden strength and deep spirituality: For sorrow and sadness of light sometimes concealed this wisdom and lust for life, . that the few, . who knew about the personal drama of the poet, . just shook their heads in awe,
. I must say that many of the poems of a thin book almost immediately became a folk songs. Their singing and often not knowing the name of the author.
In the work of Lesia Ukrainka too noticeable theme homeland, the theme of freedom for Ukraine, so that you can ignore. Her uncle, . supporter of the idea of national independence of Ukraine from Russia Empire, . was forced to emigrate abroad, . paternal aunt, . Elena Antonovna Kosach for participation in the revolutionary movement have repeatedly been subjected to arrest and exile: Even the beloved poet, . Sergei Merzhinsky (they met in the Crimea, . in 1897), . Being terminally ill, . himself participated in the revolutionary movement RSDLP, . distribute leaflets and flyers: And who knows, . maybe, . just because, . loving, . but imperious, . Olga Kosach as opposed rapprochement, . and then the novel, . his daughter with Sergei Merzhinskim, . too scared of this dangerous activity, . She knew, . the consequences of obsession thirst for heroism and sacrifice, . how can it smash and wounded heart and soul!,
. Far for examples of it and not have to go - polrodni Kosachev - Dragomanova were in the doghouse, . including the brother of Lesya, . Michael, . (* In the future professor of the Kharkiv and Dorpat universities) whose sympathy for the revolutionary and national ideas almost kicked out of university!,
. Mingled with this, of course, also the usual selfish maternal jealousy, fear of losing control and power over the fragile helpless creature, how she always seemed to be the daughter of ...
. But only seemed ...
When in 1901, Sergei Konstantinovich Merzhinsky will die from pulmonary tuberculosis, Olga unquestioningly obey the willful decision to be near the beloved daughter and let her in Minsk, to him. Merzhinsky and die at the hands of Lesi-Larochka, . he called her, . and she, . - To leave the "apogee of sorrow", . - For one night to write a lyrical drama "Obsessed", . using the ancient biblical story: Later she would say about that his work: "I confess, . I wrote in a night, . after which, . true, . I will live a long, . if even then remained alive,
. If I had someone asked how I was alive from all this came out, I might reply: "J'en ai fait un drame * - I created this drama! (* French)."
But not only the drama. The cycle of her best lyrical verses 1898 - 1900 he. devoted to Sergei Merzhinskomu. It was published only after the death of the poet and the hitherto staggering depth and bred pain and height of the beautiful feeling of love! In one poem from 7 June 1901 has the following lines:
. "The lips repeating: He went away without a refund
. No, not left - believe the heart is sacred.
. Do you hear, like a string ringing and crying?
. She is ringing, trembling with tears hot.
. Here, trembles in the depths of tune with me:
. "I'm here, I'm here always, always with you!"
. And in the songs I wish I izbyt flour
. Or anyone else I gently compresses the arm,
. Il intimate conversation taking place,
. Il lips my lips who touch --
. String rings like an echo of me:
. "I'm here, I'm here always, always with you!"
. (Usta repeating: A Translation
Lesya Ukrainka by nature a very modest man and his lyrical poems for publication carefully located. Much of her life written in never saw the light, . and scholarly editions of 60 - years of the twentieth century have long forgotten: Only in its magnificent plays and poems, we see the brightest glow - echoes the passionate, . poetic nature, . capable of deep, . sense of dedication:,
. When I die, the world went up in flames
. Words warmed by my fire.
. And the flame, they are hidden, shine
. Zazhenny the night, burning it will be the day ...
. ( "When I die:" Translation N. Brown.)
. like - that she wrote prophetically in 1896.
. Inner feelings engulfed in flames and one of the best of its creations - a drama extravaganza "Forest Song" The image of a mermaid - Girls Mavka, . in love with a simple country boy, . for whom she left the lake, . forest world and came to live with people, . Inspired by tales, . legends and superstitions, . heard in his childhood in Volynschine: Poet wrote this poem - a drama about ten days, . almost immediately without corrections, . like splashing out a pent-up stream of words and images: there clearly, . sure, . roll and the magical world of Hans Christian Andersen and the Little Mermaid. " And with those memories in which sank Lesya, . writing the next line of the drama, . she identified the German word marchendrama - fairytale,
. "Do you know that I love fairy tales and I can make up their millions, though not written until now no one" - she admitted in a letter AE. Crimean from October 14, 1911.
. "Forest Song" - the story of tragic love the little mermaid - Mavka, . died in a cruel and cynical world, people are enthusiastically adopted by readers, . but her stage performance was staged only much later, the Kiev Drama Theater named after Lesya Ukrainka somewhere in the middle of the twentieth century, . the Soviet era,
. Since then she has been on the playbills variety of drama, as well as other famous play poet - "Stone owner.
. She wrote in explanation of the legend of the famous Don Juan, . enchanted many classics of world literature long before the poor woman, . the writer in Ukrainian language: Here's what she Larisa spoke about the creation and conception of the drama "The Stone Boss or Don Giovanni" in the letter A,
. E. Crimean from May 24, 1912: "I wrote to Don Juan!" That's the very same "world and the world", without giving him even no alias. True, . drama (a drama again!) is called the "Stone master", . because the idea of it - the victory of the stone, . conservative start, . embodied in the Commander, . forked over the soul of a proud and selfish woman (Donna Anna), . and through it over the Don - Juan, . "knight of liberty",
. I do not know, of course, that I got, good or bad, but I can tell you that this topic is something diabolical, mysterious, no wonder she was soon three hundred years of torment people. I say "tortured", . For it is written on it a lot, . and well written little, . at her and thought of "the enemy of the human race", . that broke on her true inspiration and the most profound thoughts: One way or another, . but now and in our literature is Don Juan, . own, . original order, . I wrote him a woman, . which was not hitherto, . seems ....",
. Innovation writer was not only, . it was the first (and only!) woman, . write a single "a masterpiece of a masterpiece", . but in, . the first time Don - Juan was in this drama was shown as a vain and selfish man, . for the sake of their momentary whims and desires ready to go to any crime: He's become a proud, . sarcastically - mocking Donna Anna, . recognizes the power over others - a gift for a select, . that is valued above wealth and love! But abhor love (embodied in the form of sacrifice for a loved honor and good name of Dolores), and Don Juan and Donna Anna freeze in the stone a daze of Death: The final drama was so vivid and unusual, . that many of the spectators, . shrieked in horror, . seeing in the mirror image of the scene of the Stone Boss - Commander, . which was turned Don - Juan, . dressed in his coat!,
. Drama was first staged in 1914 mK
. Sadowski on the stage of the Kiev Drama Theater and was sold out with. M. Sadowski - a great actor and director, played a role of the Commendatore.
Meanwhile, for the life of the poetess was playing the last acts of her own drama.
Thirty-six years old, she fell in love again. Man, . who responded to her feelings of not less than sincere and deep affection - Clement Kvitka, . scientist musicologist and folklorist, . collector of folk tales and songs Mother Lesi was again violently against every daughter relationship "with a kind of beggars', . as she contemptuously called Clement - a man of gentle nature, . closed, . shy, . surviving childhood deeply personal drama, he grew up in a foster family,
. But Kvitka so passionately attached to a thin, . sick woman with big sad eyes, . understand it at a glance, . that refused to leave her! And, . Despite all the anger and dire predictions of the future of young, . Olga was forced to agree to marry his daughter.,
. She, however, continued to blight the life of her letters in which he tried in every way to discredit Clement, calling it "besschestnym man who married for money Kosachev - Dragomanova"
. Here, it was difficult to justify and understand. Maternal jealousy, like love - a deep whirlpool!
Young agreed: parents refused to help. All the money needed to treat seriously ill wife Clement earned himself. They sold everything that could be sold: things uncomplicated belongings, kitchen utensils. Valued only library.
Lesya was treated in Egypt and Greece, in Germany and Austria. All was useless. To sharpen the process of bone tuberculosis was added an incurable kidney disease. She died in g. Tsikhisdziri (Georgia), first in August 1913. Gone "on the wings of song. To carry that old dream: she always wanted to touch the hands of clouds ...