Joseph Pulitzer( American journalist, newspaper owner, who founded the Pulitzer Prize)
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Biography Joseph Pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer (10.04.1847 year - the year 29.10.1911)
American journalist, newspaper owner, who founded the Prize Pulitzer (Pulitzer) for literature and journalism. Methods, which won Pulitzer reader's interest was simple enough and at the same time very effectively.
Joseph Pulitzer was born April 10, 1847 in Mako, Hungary. All his childhood in Budapest, where he enlisted. In 1864, Pulitzer immigrated to the United States as a mercenary of the Federal Army during the Civil War, North and South, 1861-1865 in the U.S.. After the war Pulitzer moved to Sao Luiz, where in 1868 settled a reporter for a newspaper germanoyazychnoy Westliche Post. Within three years, Pulitzer became a co-owner of the publication, but decided to sell its stake, after receiving the deal a significant benefit.
By the time (1871) Joseph Pulitzer became interested in politics. In 1869 he was elected to the legislature of Missouri. In the years 1871-72 journalist, political scientist deeply involved in the establishment of representative offices of the Liberal Republican Party in his state. His political activities were tied to the presidential elections in 1872, where the Liberals put forward its candidate Garas Grills. After the crushing failure of the Pulitzer dramatically changed his political preferences by going to the clan of Democrats and remaining there until the end of life.
. In 1874, Pulitzer purchased the shares of another American publication germanoyazychnogo Westliche Post, which were soon successfully resold publishing concern Globe (later Globe-Democrat)
. Four years later, in 1878, Joseph Pulitzer established control over newspapers and the Post Dispatch. The result of the growth of their circulation and association publishers in the Post-Dispatch, Pulitzer became the owner of the most influential print media in the San Louise.
. October 5, 1882 the chief editor of Post-Dispatch attacked the main political rival publisher Pulitzer
. This scandal, as well as poor health forced him to move to a publisher in New York, where 10 May 1883 he bought a morning newspaper, World, previously owned by financier Jay Gauldu. Editorial Pulitzer talent will make the World in chief of New York Democratic Party shout. Four years later the New York public saw a new edition - Evening World. Were part of the concern Pulitzer.
Methods, which won Pulitzer reader's interest. Were quite simple and, simultaneously, very effective. He combined the pages of newspapers articles about political corruption, investigative journalism, sensationalism in the various areas of life, a little humor and a sufficient amount of advertising. Later, he began to add sports news column devoted to women, bright illustrations. Thus, in the pages of Pulitzer newspapers had everything - from gossip to serious policy analysis.
. Since the beginning of the Spanish-American War, World Pulitzer began fierce competition from New York Morning Journal, owned by William Goertz
. It is this struggle between the two publications led to the emergence of the term yellow press (yellow journalism) as the characteristics of the methods used by these newspapers.
. B, however, the hard work had adversely affected the health of Joseph Pulitzer - he began to lose vision and experience frequent nervous breakdowns
. Therefore, in 1887, Pulitzer left the post of chief editor, and in 1890 withdrew from publishing in general affairs, while maintaining interest in the political processes in the country and the world.
October 29, 1911 Joseph Pulitzer died. His will was a complete surprise to the entire journalistic world: he left the foundation of School of Journalism at Columbia University, . and also Joseph Pulitzer gave their money to the organization of the prize (the Pulitzer Prize), . awarded in May 1917.,
. The prize is awarded to Columbia University for outstanding achievement in journalism and music
. Decision on the winner takes the jury (Pulitzer Prize Board), whose members are appointed by the University. Total awarded 25 prizes.