Vaclav NIZYNSKI( Ballet dancer)
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Biography Vaclav NIZYNSKI
Vaslav Nijinsky (12.03.1890 year - the year 11.04.1950)
Twenty-nine years of his life Vaslav Nijinsky belonged to this world. It was a road with Moss at the Theater in the Imperial Theater School. Granite down to the Neva, on the steps which he wept when he was dismissed from the Mariinsky Theater. Paris, London and Nice, where he danced in Diaghilev's seasons. Diaghilev himself, who had his love and freedom, but led to worldwide fame. Three performances, initiating a ballet of the twentieth century.
Then there was thirty years of living in their own world of dreams and fantasies, about which we know almost nothing. Because every schizophrenic has his own.
Most suffered by his role, perhaps, was in the ballet Petrushka by Stravinsky. The tragedy was a rag doll with a human heart really feel about a twentieth century. People gradually acquired freedom, freed from the shackles of illusion and the real world, where their parents were still living. But this exemption bore the terrible loneliness, because man himself is now responsible for their lives.
In 1890, Mr.. at the Mariinsky Theater in triumph was the premiere of "Sleeping Beauty". It was a sign production. For many contemporaries the reign of Alexander III was associated with the golden age of the empire Russia. Significant expansion of its territory. Development of industry and commerce. By 1893, Mr.. final shape of the Franco-Russian alliance.
Accidentally or not, all this was reflected in the new ballet. The basis of the libretto was derived from old French fairy tale by Charles Perrault. Prince Desire (Dream) awakens with a kiss lovely Aurora - Russia, which plunged in a centuries-old dream detractors and envious in the face fairy Carabosse. Enchantment collapse, melted the power of love. Fairy-tale heroes and ambassadors of exotic countries bring their gifts - dance. Apotheosis.
"Sleeping Beauty" was perhaps the last "just" the era of classicism in ballet. Solemn music by Tchaikovsky and pompous decorations Levota his comrades, a refined staging of Petipa, combining the best of French, Italian and Russian schools of ballet. It was another dream of a strong and prosperous Russia, resurgent in defiance of the enemies. It was an appeal to the heir to the throne (there must be a dream and Dawn heir) to continue his father's work. It was a call for subjects to honor and glorify their kings.
But all this - at the Imperial Theater. For its walls or 32, or even 64 fuete, twisted, soloist, could not help the cause. Outside was a completely different life, which the ballet was supposed to see and accept.
This became possible in 1903, when Petipa resigned as chief choreographer of the Mariinsky. He gave the theater a half-century. But by the beginning of the twentieth century ballet has remained perhaps the only art form, unrelated to real life. It was a dried flower or a butterfly on a pin in the collection of eccentric, which in the age of electricity and the car is his coat and powdered wig.
. In the world of ballet place the same as if the world of architecture God gave long life Carla Rossi
. Then, in St. Petersburg to the beginning of the twentieth century there would be no single building in the eclectic style or modern, but the solid Architect Rossi Street. So with the departure of Petipa ballet desyatimilnymi steps was to make up time.
First it tried to make Nick Gorski and Nicholas Legat. Then there was the young dancer and choreographer Mikhail Fokine. I think he became so real Prince DцLsirцL (God is with them, with the French), who woke Ballet Belle. Everything was ready for staging a new play called "Russian Seasons" in Paris. Lord actors gathered for rehearsal. It was in 1907
Mikhail Fokine, 27 years old, dancer Mariinsky Theater, Theater School teacher, choreographer. Not approve of "naphthalene" ballet and was constantly seeking out the seething energy side. I read a lot, was fond of painting, played music. For hours I wandered through the Hermitage, hoping to revive the theater scene paintings, statues, paintings of red-vases.
The dream was realized when in 1906-1907. Fokine created "Grapevine", "Eunice", "Les Sylphides", "Egyptian Nights", "The Swan" (better known as "Dying") and "Le Pavillon d'Armide". Since the ballet came at a time of eclecticism, which appeared on the scene the characters and stories of all time.
. Fokine adherents become artists Alexander Benois and Leon Bakst, the ballerina Anna Pavlova and Tamara Karsavina, dancer Vaslav Nijinsky.
. Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev, 35 years old, master, patron of the arts, the discoverer of talent, by daring projects, and in this sense - a fighter, a player
. In 1898, Mr.. began to publish the first in Russia art magazine "World of Art". In 1905, Mr.. organizes a vast historical and artistic exhibition of portraits of the XVIII-XIX centuries. To do this, toured the whole of Russia along and across, collecting the remote estates portraits of ancestors. In fact, Diaghilev opened his contemporaries Russian eighteenth century.
Then he arranges for Salon d'Automne in Paris, the exhibition "Russian art from icons to the early twentieth century". Shortly followed by concerts of Russian music who introduced Europe to Glinka, Mussorgsky, Borodin, Rachmaninoff, Rimsky-Korsakov. A year later - Opera Season. Paris heard of Fyodor Chaliapin.
At the same time, the idea stage of synthesis in the ballet - combining forces dancers, musicians, choreographers and artists. There is a fact that was later called "Diaghilev's seasons.
Tamara Platonovna Karsavina, 22 years old, yet at the level of the ballerina of the Imperial Theaters, although the party is already dancing balerinskie. Talented, beautiful and intelligent. Ideal model for historical productions of Fokine. It was at this time, passionately in love Fokin receives from her refusal, and Karsavina remains for him a mirage.
Fomich Vaslav Nijinsky, 17 years. Just graduated Theater School and passed in the Mariinsky Theater. In life - awkward and unattractive young man with a missing eye, and often with his mouth open. On the stage - a graceful-looking man with luminous eyes, striking polished leaps and poses, "elevation and container", as written in reviews. Doll Pinocchio, becoming a man at first sounds of the overture.
And it's being hellish music, howling melancholy bow. Last devil caught beetles, and flows down cranberry juice.
In his first season at the Mariinsky Nijinsky peretantseval virtually all ballets. Both classical and new set Fokine. He was a partner Matilda Kshesinskaia, Anna Pavlova, Olga Preobrazhenskaya. He was a romantic young man in "Les Sylphides", a slave of Cleopatra in "Egyptian Nights", pazhom enchantress Armida in "Le Pavillon d'Armide.
Once naturally Role slave and pages moved him into real life. Initially, his master and lover was a representative of another St. Petersburg - Prince Pavel Lvov. In the life of Nijinsky appeared cabs, fur coats, night restaurants, expensive gifts. Always remained the feeling used and then abandoned Petrushka.
Then it was Diaghilev who saved him from the clutches of a cynical bohemian, lavish care and attention, while turning its back on the life of the glass walls. Because it is always better Diaghilev knew what he wanted Nijinsky.
Then there was his wife Romola, who is also better known and to 1918. quite successfully "rescued" her husband of a heartless world, slid into a nightmare of madness.
But none of them could boast that they knew a man who was next - Vaslav Nijinsky. Because self Nijinsky became only the dance, and there he was alone, even if passionately embraced at this time partner.
. Probably because he could be so incredible dance that does not spend itself in everyday life, but only a studied smile and bowed curtly replying to lavish compliments
. In some ways, and Diaghilev and Romola were right, believing that Vaclav not able to take care of themselves. Until now, only cared about him.
He was born in 1889. the family of dancers, who with the troupe of wandering actors traveled to Russia. In the year under Bronislava was a little older - Stanislav. A child older brother received a head injury and therefore developed a mental illness. The family remembered as the worst outbreak of rage from his father. So it is quite possible, Vaclav schizophrenia was hereditary.
My father got himself another family, and her mother decided to give Wenceslas with Bronislaw on state content in the St Petersburg ballet school. They took him only because he jumped beautifully, in the rest of the data were not very good.
From the beginning, learning ballet performances held in. They were devils, and the tin soldiers, and pastoral shepherds. Once in the dance "faun" they had to take a run and jump. When everything has landed, it turned out that one still flying. Choreographer (and it was Fokine) set for jumpy kid (Nijinsky), the solo part. It was their first meeting.
The school Nijinsky teased "Jap" for slanting eyes, shook for unsociability, but not badly hurt. Teachers immediately made it clear who is the chief talent. In high school he read a lot, but for yourself. Ambient and have remained in the dark about his mental. It was the same with music lessons. He played music together in one empty classroom, showing extreme stupidity on the lessons. His favorite novel was "The Idiot". Then Vaclav will heal itself in St. Moritz, like Prince Myshkin.
The first season of "Russian Ballet 1909. in Paris was opened shortly after the conclusion of the season at the Mariinsky. The performance was an unprecedented success. All Shook the "Polovtsian Dances" from the main archer - Fokine, "Cleopatra" with a monstrously seductive Ida Rubinstein, "Les Sylphides" ( "Les Sylphides") with air Anna Pavlova and Armida's Pavilion, which opened the world Nijinsky.
. Fokine Ballet reform consisted in the fact that he revived the men's dance
. Prior to his dances were staged solely on the dancers, and partners were needed only to support them in the right moment, to help show off their talent, beauty, grace. Dancers became known as "crutches".
Fokine was not going to tolerate this. First, he wanted to dance, and the role of "crutch" it does not suit. Secondly, he felt something lost ballet, virtually removing the dancer from the scene. Ballet became honeyed fruit and berries, absolutely asexual. Show the same nature could only opposed women's dance man equal to him.
In this sense, Nijinsky was the ideal material for Fokine. From his body superbly drilled in the Theater School, could slap any form. He could dance all that conceived choreographer. And while his own talent to inspire his every movement.
In Fokine's ballet has not been the development of images and characters. They were snapshots of fictional situations. But much passion and expression, sent in a dance - plenty. Actually, that's all, and built. More passion, more dancing, more complex movements, much virtuosity.
Old ballet was largely based on the pantomime. Here's how it was in sign language to convey such a message of betrayal Scheherazade. "Listen (to reach out to the Shah), . Just imagine (knock on his forehead), . that your queen (point to it and portray the crown of the head) making love (hug himself with both hands) with a Negro (make ferocious grimace and hold his hand face down, . portraying blacks).,
. In the ballet, Fokine also the ruler of Persia, his hand on his sword and slowly approached the defeated opponent's body with his foot and turned the black face up
. And before that, they grappled in a deadly dance, and Nijinsky - "black gold" - expressed in this dance all the flour of love and despair.
. Yes, he was once a slave and involuntarily started to wonder about the extent of responsibility assumed by the people, making another of his toy
. These thoughts led to a new interpretation of the role of Albrecht in the ballet "Giselle".
Previously handsome Albert seduced a young peyzanku, "tear" in her heart, but was graciously forgiven. Albert Nijinsky sought is not fun, but the beauty. He did not want the death of Giselle did not expect, as all will. Albert had just managed to see a girl in another - different but kindred spirit. That is why he so desperate, so he is ready to punish himself and follow the jeep (the product of his mind) into a swamp of madness.
. The interpretation was in keeping with the spirit of the era portrayed in poems by Blok, or in the form of "witch's Lake of Chekhov's" Seagull "
. But it did not conform to the spirit of routine, the Imperial Mariinsky Theater. Therefore, arriving in St. Petersburg after a season in Paris 1910. and danced "Giselle", Nijinsky was dismissed from the theater for her performance in inappropriate dress. Was considered inappropriate dress, made on the design of Benoit: tunic and tights without panties lush, integral accessories Alberts on the Russian stage of recent decades.
. Now Nijinsky was in bondage of Diaghilev, he was cut off George's Day to return to the imperial stage.
. He escapes from the wrath of the black wave of white hands
. View: lights approaching on the left ... Do you see the torches? see smoke? This is true, the Queen herself ...
There has been much speculation, why still Nijinsky was dismissed. One of them is connected with the dismissal of the intrigues of Diaghilev, who thus acquired a permanent artist. Anyway, now Vaclav belonged only to him. (Karsavina Diaghilev once said: "Why are not you married Fokine? Then you would both belong to me").
You could plant constantly troupe with a single star - Nijinsky. It was not supposed to work for him: Karsavina (not all rushing to the Mariinsky), invited by the "stars" (negotiations with Pavlova and Kshesinskaia), a pair of specific dancers, the art of Leon Bakst and Benois, the music of famous composers.
. The first performance of 1911
. again shocked the Parisian public. It was "The Phantom of roses" to music by Carl von Weber's "Invitation to the Dance". Based lay a line from Theophile Gautier: "I - the specter of roses, which yesterday you wore at the ball."
Nijinsky had no rights to dance and not even a flower, a scent of roses, which reminds slumbering girl of the ball. Jean Cocteau, frequenter "Seasons", exclaimed that the scent of roses from now on he will have to be associated with Nijinsky's last jump, disappears in the. Perhaps this is the ballet (even ballet, and detailed pas de deux Karsavina and Nijinsky) allowed critics to relate what he saw on the stage with impressionism in painting.
Season 1911. could be called the most successful and fruitful. Fokin came to the peak of its activity choreographer. In "Phantom Roses", the program was "Sadko" by Rimsky-Korsakov's "Narcissus" Nikolai Tcherepnin, "Peri" by Paul Dukas and "Petrushka" by Igor Stravinsky. Ballets, as always, "from a different life": Antiquity, the East, Russian exotica.
Somehow everything came together in "Petrouchka": time and people. Twentieth century with its main theme of freedom and unfreedom. "The eternal feminine" (Ballerina Karsavina), blunt masculinity (Arap Orlova), thirst for power (Magician Cecchetti) and "little man" (Parsley Nijinsky) made their choice. Yarmarochny dancer, according to Stravinsky, "suddenly unchained" allowed to look into his soul. Soul became man dolls, in which so much pain, anger and despair.
Hall fascinated watching the tragedy of dolls, but no one has compared it with the tragedy of the Nijinsky. After the performance, he fled from the praise in the dressing room and took off from the face of layer after layer of makeup, looking past the mirror. But come "Magician" Diaghilev. He said that the need to unwind, and Nijinsky took supper in the Bois de Boulogne. Parsley again turned into a doll.
Soon started rehearsals the Blue God ', this time from the Indian life. Almost all countries were already covered by the "plot", will soon have to be repeated.
All submissions "Seasons" attended by young lady by the name of Romola Pula.
Oh, no, why are you teasing me? This - infernal suite ... Queen - she walks in broad daylight, All intertwined with garlands of roses ...
In 1912, Mr.. Diaghilev said Vaclav should try to be a choreographer. He suggested to think about the symphonic prelude to Debussy's "Afternoon of a Faun". Fokine, this would not. He again arrange Bacchic dance. But still require more convincing to lead a flock of sheep.
Nijinsky was asked to be played Debussy. And then he turned his head in profile and opened his hand, palm outward. The man disappeared, appeared beast, who became music. Interestingly, I realized I Diaghilev, Nijinsky, that gives to the slaughter? Such ballets was not there, they were ahead of their time, especially in Paris, has not yet had time to enjoy the exotic "Russian Seasons".
. The dance lasted only 12 minutes and showed a very different aesthetic of ballet
. Where can move in two-dimensional space. Where can I forget about vyvorotnosti feet and walk from heel to toe. Where can I move in unison with the music, and in the pauses. The main thing - it is not, and afternoon heat, which is subordinate and a young faun and nymphs, as if descended from a temple frieze. And the veil, lost nymph, and a vague desire, directed fauns on this fetish.
Ballet booed, and then showed a second. Booed more. But there were those who welcomed the emergence of "modern" ballet. Among them - Auguste Rodin, fiercely protective of Nijinsky.
Next season premiere 1912. were "Daphnis and Chloe" Fokine. Innocent shepherd rejected claims unloved and connected with his chosen in an apotheosis of ancient dance. After the scene went on a flock of sheep.
It was the end of an era Fokine, which lasted so long. Ballet scolding his time leaps and bounds.
Then came the "Games", set in the style of Nijinsky Gauguin, whom he loved. The ballet was about contemporary young people, playing tennis, but the same free, as the natives of Tahiti.
Later in the season 1913. Nijinsky has come to turn "The Rite of Spring" to music by Stravinsky and Nicholas Roerich's decor. In the hall broke into a pagan holiday spells spring. Dances - prayers, prayer for the awakening of nature, sacrifice Chosen. Hall could not resist this energy. The power of archetypes was too hard for viewers who are not ready to participate in the ritual. Ballet several times interrupted, the power taken out raging audience and continued further. It was glory, but not lifetime and posthumously.
Then Nijinsky was dead tired and in this state went with the troupe on tour in South America. The vessel was Romola Pula, but there was no Diaghilev, no sensible Karsavina. Romola led the attack on the object of his passion so vigorously that it was soon announced their engagement. They were married in Buenos Aires.
Later Romola was to liberate man from the fetters of Diaghilev, not realizing that Diaghilev, Ballet, and Life for him synonymous. In Rio de Janeiro Nijinsky declined to speak in the next ballet, Diaghilev considered contract torn. Now Nijinsky could speak only in the music halls, which he did for a while. Way to St. Petersburg was ordered for him as for the person deviating from military service.
Romola was not to blame. Or was, but only as Albert in "Giselle". She did not think that way will. And when he realized that done, all the energy directed at correcting errors. She gave birth Vaclav two daughters, whom he loved very much ... yet recognized. She went to pay homage to Diaghilev, thinking that old impressions stir feelings is lost somewhere in the soul of her husband. She had treated his insulin shock.
But he went farther and farther, no longer write his "Diary", but still drew a mandala - a symbol of the Self, the God within himself.
Nijinsky died in 1950
Nijinsky's followers are divided into two kinds. The first (and most) dancers dress up in tights and a heart-rending music makes flour to express love, grief, despair and pr. Second ... Here we have just seen with my own eyes staging of Martha Graham, Roland Petit and Maurice Bejart (especially those in which dancing Jorge Donn), in order to understand the thin thread of continuity linking them with Nijinsky, teetered on the brink of insanity.
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