After Nizami( Azeri poet)
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Biography After Nizami
After Nizami (1141 - Estimated. 1204) - Azerbaijani poet and thinker, philosopher, wrote in the language of farsi.
Nizami, or 'strung words' (the real name of the poet - Ilyas son of Yusuf) lived and worked in 12 in. in the Caucasus - in Ganja (hence the nickname - 'of Ganja'). This town, . standing on the Great Silk Road, . according to the Arab traveler Ibn Azraq, . visited him almost a hundred years before the birth of the poet, . 'is the great capital of the Turks', . bearing in mind the state of Arran, . where 'the Turks - as noted by another famous historian Nasavi, . - Incalculable, . if the ants',
. Born in 1141 in a family of scientists, theologians, and received, . Judging by the content of his works, . comprehensive philosophical, . philologists, . knew, . in addition to his native Azerbaijani (Turkic), . language of science and religion (Arabic) and the language of poetry (Persian), . studied mathematics, . algebra, . geometry, . astronomy, . medicine, . logic, . history, . 'for short life was all of science - from the rings of Saturn to the center of the earth and become founts of knowledge of all subjects', . or verse: all the books ancestors studied myself, . / Excel, . elated my quick kalam (translated by W. Derzhavina),
. Milestones in the way of life depicted in his poems, . of which we know, . that the glory of Nizami as a lyric-philosopher grew rapidly, . that he refused to attend court to be a poet, . rejected 'perishable and transitory worldly temptations', . lived on royalties, . derived works, . which he commissioned,
. Once the ruler of Derbent presented him as a slave-fee tyurchanku Afak, Nizami was then nearly thirty, and she became his wife, muse of his work, the mother of his only son, Mohammed. Opponent of polygamy (polygyny), Nizami wrote: One wife is enough for you, for / husband with multiple wives - lonely. (Subscript translate Heydar Aliyev and N. Omanova).
There are a Nizami Qasida-ode, in which, as in the famous monuments of the genre, he says of himself, the contribution to poetry: I'm the king of kings in the power of wise thoughts became. / Lord of space, time, I became shah: / In the realm of euphonious not share my songs with anyone else I have power: (translated by I. Borisova). This view is confirmed in a multi-faceted, . bright, . truly great literary heritage of Nizami, . which entered the history of literature as an author - in addition to a large number of poems in all genres of oriental poetry - Khamsa five poems: "A Treasury of Secrets", . "Khosrow and Shirin", . "Layla and Majnun", . "Seven Beauties" and "Iskander-name" in two parts (A book on Alexander the Great), . subjects which for many centuries and remains a cause of imitation in the East,
The first poem, "A Treasury of Secrets" (1177) is composed of twenty short poetic chapters, or 'speech', written, like other poems in the style of Masnavi, 'parnorifmuyuschihsya Rows. In them the author in the form of didactic parables expounds his philosophical and ethical views on human nature, . his flesh and the spirit world, . love as the root cause of being, . pathogen creativity, . moved toward the good works, . exalts man, . reflects on the vicissitudes of fate, . power and tyranny,
. He gives directions ruler of justice, . positive attitude toward a subject ( "The Tale of Solomon and villager), . harmony of the celestial worlds and social (not only in heaven, . but you're here - in paradise, . (translated by K. and S. Lipskerova SHervinskom), . and natural (the parable of the king-hunter and the jib, . which has taken the gift of speech in defense of gazelle), . extols the greatness of mind, . spirit and shaping the human hand (the story of an old brickmaker),
. There is a narrative poem about Jesus, Jesus, the Koran and the prophets, in particular, the description of Muhammad's ascension to heaven, his encounter with God (the story takes place in three out of five of his poems). Following the literary traditions of the East, . Nizami anticipates his poems, . including "The Treasury of Secrets", . odes in honor of the Creator and the Prophet Muhammad, . prayer for the mercy and forgiveness of God, . the superiority of speech, . 'beaded in due course' (these are questions of poetics) before the speech, . 'like scattered pearls',
. The poem, with its plot richness and brightness of images glorified author. Inspired by the success, but also in memory of the prematurely deceased wife Afag, the first and last, he created a poem about love, which, according to nizamivedov, Afag has created a prototype of its female characters.
Love story with a lot of varieties of triangles, formed the basis of his second poem - "Khosrow and Shirin" (1181), gravitating to the novel in verse with a self-developing story. In the introduction to the poem by Nizami wrote: I have no other vocation than singing love. / As long as I live, but will not be my fate to another thing: The world - this is love, everything else - the hypocrisy, deception: Who is devoid of love - the one you like, devoid of soul. (interlinear translation of Heydar Aliyev and N. Osmanova).
Khosrow narcissistic prince, heir to the Iranian throne, falls in love with Shirin, heir to the throne of Arran. But she, too, fallen in love with Khosrow not want to connect destiny with whimsical and carefree prince, for whom love - joy. Meanwhile, Khosrow loses throne and, in order to return the kingdom, drawn to the Byzantine Caesar, but one ready to help, put a condition that Chosroes had married his daughter, Miriam. Tron returned, Miriam - his wife, but the love of Shirin Khosravi does not rest, he longs to meet with her. Shirin adamant, as regards the family as a union based on the sole and eternal love. Here there is a new storyline involving a love of a skilled stonemason Shirin Farhad-hero, who, as instructed his lover, cut a channel through the rocks. Jealousy flares in Khosrow, held his conversation with Farhad (this dialogue - and one of the strongest chapters of the poem), and he resorted to deception intrigue, resulting Farhad dies. Khosrow repent of their deeds, and with new strength in him flares love Shirin. Nizami skillfully develops the fate of the heroes, their confrontation: Miriam - Khosrow - Shirin Chosroes - Shirin - Farhad, reveals their inner world, the psychology of behavior, while avoiding single-valued estimates, each acts according to its own nature. Here and confrontation between the two rulers: the fair kingdom of Shirin and Khosrow kingdom from tyranny and oppression. Miriam dies, but Khosrow and then change their feelings - marries the beautiful Seker ( 'Width' and 'Seker' - synonyms, means 'sweetness'), continuing, however, love Shirin. There is an explanation between Khusraw and Shirin, 'dialogue at a distance': Khosrow ashamed as a person and as a ruler, aware of his errors. As a result, Khosrow and Shirin are united in love, he is aware of the harmfulness of their acts, begins to rule in justice. But the scene takes his son by Miriam Shiruye ( 'Lion'), conceived a passion for Shirin, overthrew his father and threw him into prison, where Khosrow killed by the hands of murderers, and Shirin, dividing them with imprisonment, commits suicide.
The third poem - "Layla and Majnun" (1188) - to the tune of every day life, big love. Tribalism, religious superstitions do not give the young, love each other, reunited, and the poet Case, obsessive passion, falls into madness ( 'Majnun' means 'crazy'). Vain attempt to tribal chiefs - fathers Casey and Leila, . discourage them from each other: Case forcibly taken away in Mecca, . but there, . accidentally heard the name Leila, . He again lights up the passion, . runs away from home in the desert and lived there as a hermit among the birds and animals, . appeals to the stars, . praying God palaces,
. Leila, separated from loved ones can not stand separation, and dies, and he learned of her death, comes to the grave of Leila and in the same die
. As in other poems, . proper narrative is preceded by introductory chapters: the praise of God and the Prophet Muhammad, . story of why the works of the poem, . ordered by the Shah of Shirvan Ahsitanom 1, . Who sings the poet; complaints at the time, . in which the envious and spiteful critics do not consider, . but then - the request for forgiveness for their complaints, the edification of his son Muhammad, . remembrance of deceased loved ones - father, . mother Hlц¦vka to forget vanity, . to refuse service to kings, . about, . we should not take away from people's daily bread, . the joy of contentment and a small service to the people, . - Charter on the way, . not take care of themselves, . help deliver the cargo to another, . modesty, . which leads to greatness,
. Next - the actual story: that, . as Leila and Case loved each other, . Properties Majnun love ', . status Leila: step by step, the poet immerses the reader in a tragic love story, . alternating narrative parables, . and the poem ends with a new dedication Shirvanshakh, . whom he instructs: having its own court, . try to trace, . so that the sentence did not dare to pervert: Be fair, . Beware the holy law, . begging for mercy - mercy: There is a warning, . not reproach, . - Talk to you looking for an excuse: Yes we are pleading to you hot breastplate against the arrows of fate,
. As a good mascot with a take all these suggestions Nizami. Good Lord, stretch its rays, all the troubles and misfortunes wasted: "This work was begun on the Creator and brought to a glorious end '. (translated by T. Streshneva).
The fourth poem, "Seven Beauties" (1197) was commissioned by Nizami Seljuk Sultan Suleiman, whom the author devotes a special chapter - she and praise, and instruction by comparison with the wise Solomon, Suleiman. Telling the life story of Bahram Gur, . poet, . As in other poems, . returns to the problem of power, . Condemning in parables, . accompanying story poem, . time, . when "every man his allotment, . breaking away, . in the state wanted to transform "(translated by V. Derzhavina), . speaking out against cruelty and injustice, . extolling the nobility of the ruler (the power of craving over the world - the enemy of his fate),
. In the poem constantly played up the sacred number seven: This is a story in seven days of the week seven wives of the legendary ancient Iran the Shah Bahram Gur, . taken out of the seven zones of the earth and living in the seven palaces, . each of which is devoted to one of the then known seven planets,
. The dome of the palace each has its own color, coinciding with the light and the planets, and with the color of the ethnic group of his wife (by the way, 'beauty' can be translated as a 'portrait' or 'planet', 'Star'). Wives Bahram Gur - Indian princess from the black dome of the palace (the color of Saturn, . embodies Saturday), . Turkestan - a yellow-domed palace (the color of the sun, . 'Sunday'), . Khorezm of the green-domed palace (the color of the moon, . 'Monday'), . Slav from the palace of red-dome (the color of Mars, . 'Tuesday'), . Maghreb (north-western part of Muslim Africa) lives in the palace Golubov-turquoise (the color of Mercury, . 'Wednesday'), . rumiyskaya (Byzantine) in the palace of the color sandal (Jupiter, . 'Thursday'), and Iranian, . of the white-domed palace (Venus, . 'Friday'),
. Each tells Shah (incidentally, it is for them to dress the color of the palace), the original parable with an entertaining storyline and deeply hidden morality. Example, . about, . that only people moralist worthy of true love, . the power of truth (the parable of Suleiman and his wife Bilkis: frank recognition of each other - it can not overcome their desires for a young, handsome, . and he, . as soon as one is to him, . first looks at his hands, . to find out, . that he brought him a gift, . heal their crippled-son),
. There is a parable with the motives of repentance for the errors committed, retribution for the atrocities, etc.. Moral character and stories are the seven prisoners trapped in prison treacherous vizier. Their story prompts the king to give up comfort and mindless gratification of the flesh, take up the affairs of the state, building it into the spiritual principles of justice and peace
. The idea of the harmonic state takes Nizami in his last poem (completed in 1203) - an epic tale of Iskander-name "(Book of the Iskander), . which is preceded by the words: Nizami! Is it time to forget his glory eh? / Ancient of Days! Can not always be boys! (Translated by Lipskerova),
. The poem turned out a large-scale in its design and bulk of the content: it twenty thousand poetic lines that make up the two books: "Sharaf-name" (The Book of fame) and "Iqbal-name" (The Book of Fate). In the center of the poem - the image of Alexander of Macedon, . but not so much real, . many mythological, . who contacted idea of an ideal ruler - wise and fair, . whom (under the name of Dhul-Karneyna, . or 'antlered') Quran even considered to be a company of prophets,
. That their interpretation of Nizami anticipates a caveat: Do not reproach me in the change-moving events [historical], because the artist will inevitably have to do.
Iskander-warrior, making their trips and conquering peoples and countries (however, they voluntarily submit to him), driven by not only the ideas of world domination and trying to comprehend the mysteries of the universe, the meaning of human existence. And once he gets in a certain country, in the "city beautiful edge 'where there is universal prosperity, no masters nor servants, neither slaves nor masters, the people are not dying from disease and executions, but only from old age. And said a crown of this creation: / 'These secrets will accept, as of Words! / Come prowl in the world. The wise man with his hands / Only lovitvoy burn everywhere set snares. / Not quite spoils eh? From the temptations of freedom / I received while listening to good people: / If they are right, its a lie you understand! / If they are, should we be called human beings? (Translated by Lipskerova). Iskander's mission boils down to what he knew 'Land of a fair and sunlight'.
The concluding lines of the poem - the poet's death, allegedly It written by others, as evidenced by the indication that it was sixty years and three years of him, / And beyond six months - and he went into the darkness'. / Getting to the administration! Appointed thy hour: He stopped. You would say that the dream of its non-residential. He fell asleep, as if he did not live - we can assume that these lines could compose himself Nizami.
"Khamsa", five poems of Nizami in the many centuries determined the development of the poetry of the East. Each outstanding poet felt obliged to write a role model ( 'similarity' or 'answers') on plots of five poems of Nizami, keeping even the form of rhyming. According to incomplete statistics nizamivedov, based on the "Layla and Majnun" is written over a hundred imitations of farsi and Turkic languages. Only the language farsi there are over forty responses. Among the poets, which became famous in the world of poetry, is based on his famous Khamsa of Nizami pyateritsy - Indian poet Amir Khosrow Dehlevi (1253-1325), Persian-Tajik poet Jami (1414-1492), an Uzbek poet Alisher Navoi (1444-1501).
Creativity Nizami - contribution not only to the literature of the East, and West: JW Goethe believed Nizami one of the seven brilliant poets of all times and peoples.