Senkovsky Osip (Julian) Ivanovich( Russian writer, journalist, literary critic, scholar and linguist, orientalist)
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Biography Senkovsky Osip (Julian) Ivanovich
Senkovsky, Osip (JULIAN) Ivanovich (1800-1858), Russian writer, journalist, literary critic, scholar and linguist, orientalist. Born 19 (31) March 1800 in Vilna district, the son of the hereditary, but impoverished Polish landowner. In 1819 he graduated from the University of Vilna, which was influenced by liberal professors in t.ch. future ideologist of the Polish Gentry revolutionary I. Lelewel, and he has a special sense of world-historical mission of the East. In his university years, participated in the publication of the comic magazine. Was reckoned to Constantinople mission, in 1819-1821 made a long trip to Turkey, Syria, Egypt. He mastered the Turkish, Arabic (fluent), Persian, Syriac, Greek and Italian languages in addition to the main European. In 1821, in St. Petersburg to the service of a translator for foreign colleagues, and in 1822-1847 served in the St. Petersburg University, the post of full professor in the department of Arabic and Turkish literature
. In 1821 Senkovsky published "Fragments from a trip to Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia, the top, and then -" Memoirs of Nubia and Syria, "and his first experience in scientific and historical genre" Annex to the general history of the Huns, Turks and Mongols (1824 to French
. yaz.). In 1822 he became close friends with his countryman F. Bulgarin, . through him, met with N. Grech and A. Bestuzhev; worked in periodicals Nord archive ', . 'Son of the Fatherland', . 'Northern Bee'; actively participated in the almanac Bestuzhev and K. Ryleeva 'Polar Star' (1823-1825),
. In addition to the permanent broad Oriental Studies was engaged acoustics, music theory and history, the study of Scandinavian sagas and Russian history. In 1828-1833 served as a censor. In 1828 published (also in French. yaz.) their first experience in a satirical mock-scientific-sounding genre: "Letter Tutundzhi-oglu-Mustafa-aga, . true Turkish philosopher, . Mr. Thaddeus Buе-haryn, . editor 'North bees', translated from Russian and published with the scientist commentary Kutluk-Fulada, . former Ambassador to the courts of Bukhara and Khiva, . now a merchant Dried Dried Apricots in Samarkand and writer ",
Aware of the need for the emerging middle class to him and to conform to his tastes printed editions, in 1829 Senkovsky develops draft publication 'Universal newspaper - political, commercial, scientific and literary. In 1830-1836 he published in St. Petersburg Polish satirical newspaper 'Balamut', which shaped and tested your own journalistic style. In 1833 participated in the almanac's largest publisher of the St. Petersburg AF Smirdin 'house warming', which published early works signed by 'Baron Brambeus': literary and political reviews "The Stranger" and "high yield of Satan". At the university classroom, students Senkovsky translated from Russian into Turkish bast "Tale of Frantsyle Venetsianov", . one of the characters which was 'King Brambeus': making it for euphony Baron, . Senkovsky established his main literary pseudonym,
. Also in 1833 he was fully used: left and had a runaway success "fantastic journey Baron Brambeus".
In 1834 Smirdin succumbed to the entreaties Senkovsky and undertake the publication of 'Library for Reading' - a new monthly 'magazine of literature, science, arts, industry, news and fashion', edited by Senkovsky and Gretch. The magazine had seven divisions: Russian literature, foreign literature, science and art, industry and agriculture, criticism, literary annals, a mixture of. The sole author of the last three divisions was himself Senkovsky; in the other he hosted almost complete control. In the first six years of its existence, the brainchild of Senkovsky sway in Russia's literary scene and has penetrated into the remotest corners of the country. As Gogol wrote, "people seldom hitherto maiden book in hand, began a new, long and varied reading in the great books of this journal '.
From the Russian literature there can be read Pushkin (in particular, the "Queen of Spades"), and Lermontov, D. Davydov and V. Dahl, but much more space was given to the works of A. Timofeeva, N. puppeteer V. Benediktova - and not without reason. In full accordance with its vostokopoklonstvom, . and in the spirit of the Polish Baroque poetry and partly of French Romanticism (he worked in the style of J. Janin and early Balzac) Senkovsky perceived literature as a verbal ornamentalistiku, . special kind shtukarstvo,
. This conception of literature, he planted all the way, . and how it can better meet favorite authors 'Library for Reading', . above all, . course, . Baron himself Brambeus, . which was published under the signature of an endless cycle of comic phantasmagoria, . often with naive and moralistic tinge: "The Adventures of a register-soul", . "All the women's life in a few hours", . "Luky", . "Hanging guest", . "Ideal Beauty", . "Turning heads in books and books in their heads", etc.,
. Bibliographic list of works Senkovsky in the first volume of his collected works contains 440 names, . of them fiction, no more than three dozen, . including more or less transferable Oriental tale, . numerous critical articles, . often with the volume and nature of monographic work: on the Russian historical drama, . the historical novel, . the eastern drama, . the new drama from the Greco-Roman history, etc.,
. The historical articles argued that the language "Tale of Bygone Years" - Polish (although the Pole Senkovsky was notorious polonofobom) and that "The Lay of Igor" - a fake Petrovsky time. In reviews and critical reviews reigned sarcasm, buffoonery and ernichestvo, with merciless critic incriminate him whom work in frivolity. So, on Gogol was told that he was 'lack of artistic observation was replaced by a collection of grotesques, originals, eccentrics and rogues'. Politicians Senkovsky shied away from as possible, teaching one of the staff of the magazine: 'Write fun, let's just something that the public digests the stomach. From the ideas he had blockages, especially from liberal '.
Since 1848 Senkovsky away from the magazine works, thoroughly failing health, and engaged in musical inventiveness and the theory of music. However, in the 1856-1858 contracted to conduct the weekly 'Son of the Fatherland' column 'Leaves Baron Brambeus', which advocated the liberation of the peasants and the freedom of the press, welcomed other liberal innovations.
Died in St. Petersburg Senkovsky 4 (16) March 1858.