Elizabeth( Russian Empress)
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Elizabeth - Russian Empress (1741 - December 24. 1761), daughter of Peter Conducted. and Catherine I (p. December 18. 1709). Since the death of Catherine I led. Princess E. Petrovna was hard school. Especially dangerous was her position under Anna Ivanovna and Anna Leopoldovna which constantly frightened commitment to the Guard E. From vows as a nun saved her existence abroad of her nephew Prince of Holstein, with his life every steep step with E. would be useless cruelty. Foreign diplomats, French. Ambassador Shetardi and Swedish - Baron Nolken, they decided, out of the political types of households, benefit from the mood of the Guard and build E. the throne. Intermediary between the ambassadors and E. Life was a medical Lestocq. But E. cost and without their help. Swedish government announced Anna Leopoldovna war under the pretext of freeing Russia from the yoke of foreigners. Guards regiments were ordered to march. Before the performance of soldiers Transfiguration Regiment, Grenadier Company, the majority of which E. baptized children, expressed her concern: whether it is safe to be among the enemies? E. decided to act. At 2 am on 26 Nov.. 1741 g. E. appeared in the barracks of the Transfiguration of the regiment and, recalling whose daughter she was, ordered the soldiers to follow him, forbade them to use weapons in case, because the soldiers threatened to kill all. At night, suffered a coup, and on November 25 issued a brief manifesto on the entry E. the throne, drafted in very vague terms. On the unlawfulness of the rights of John Antonovich not a word was said. Before Guardsmen E. evinced great affection for John. Quite a different tone was written a detailed manifesto of 28 November, reminiscent of the order of succession established by Catherine I and approved obscheyu swear. The manifesto says that the throne, already on the death of Peter II, followed by E. Drafters have forgotten that, under the will of Catherine, after the death of Peter II, the throne was to get all the son of Anna Petrovna and the Duke of Holstein, born in 1728, Mr.. In the charges against the German timeservers and their friends, they were attributed to many things, what they were not to blame: this is due to the fact that E. Petrovna was very annoyed attitude towards her people, her noble father - Munnich, Ostermann, etc.. Public opinion is not thought, . however, . include an analysis of the degree of culpability of those or other persons; irritation against the German timeservers was so strong, . that cruel punishment, . of certain, . seen the wages of a painful punishment Dolgoroukys and Volyn,
. Osterman and Munnich was defined as the death penalty quartering; Levenvoldu, Mengdenu, Golovkin - just death penalty. The death penalty is all replaced by a reference. Remarkably, Munnich accused and the appointment of Biron the regent, and most Biron not only touched, but even easier for its fate: a Pelyma he was transferred to the residence in Yaroslavl (because he did not worry Byron E.).
In the early years of the reign of E. now and then searched for plots, hence arose, among other things, the dark matter Lopukhins. Cases like Lopukhinsky, arose from two causes: 1) from an exaggerated fear of the adherents of Brunswick dynasty, whose number was very limited, and 2) from the intrigues of those who stood close to E. Petrovna, for example. from undermining Lestocq and others against BestuzhevaRyumina. Lestocq was committed to an alliance with France, Bestuzhev-Rumin - alliance with Austria, so the home intrigue intervened foreign diplomats. Natalia Lopukhina, wife of Lieutenant-General, was famous for its outstanding beauty, education and courtesy. Said that when Anna Ioanovna at court balls, she outshone Elizabeth, and that the contest is settled in the E. Hostility to Petrovna Lopukhina, which at that time was already the son of an officer. She was a friend of Anna Gavrilovna Bestuzhev-Ryumin, nee Golovkina, the wife of his brother, Vice-Chancellor. Lopukhin, the former in connection with Levenvoldom, sent him a bow with one officer saying that he had not lost heart and hope for better times, but Bestuzhev sent greetings to his brother, Count Golovkin, also referred to as ц-ц=ц¬ц¦ц-. case Osterman and Minich. Both were familiar with the Marquis Botta, the Austrian ambassador in St. Petersburg. Botta had no qualms about expressing their friends in the ladies or the unfounded assumption that the Brunswick-Wolfenbц+ttel dynasty soon reign again. Translated in Berlin, where he repeated the same assumptions. All this guff Lestocq gave rise to compose a conspiracy by which he wanted to strike the Vice-Chancellor Bestuzhev-Ryumin, defender of the Austrian Union. Investigation of the case was entrusted to a gene. Attorney Prince Trubetskoy, Lestocq and Commander in Chief Ushakov. Trubetskoy hated Bestuzhev Rumina-same, . as Lestocq, . but most Lestocq hated even more, he belonged to the oligarchic party, . which, . the overthrow of the German timeservers, . hoping to seize power in their hands and attempt to resume the supreme,
. From the people who made no secret of regret to the exiles, it was easy to achieve recognition in audacious speeches against the Empress and in censuring her private life. In the case was put torture - and for all that managed to prosecute only eight people. The verdict was terrible: Lopukhin with her husband and son, tongue cut, the wheel. E. P. abolished the death penalty: Lopukhin with her husband and son, for cutting language, were ordered to beat the whip, the other - only to beat the whip. In the manifesto, in which Russia were informed about the case Lopukhins, again talked about the illegality of the previous reign. All this led to sharp criticism of the E. and did not bring the desired result of intrigue - the overthrow of Bestuzhevykh. The value of the Vice-Chancellor has not decreased, but increased in a few time he received the Chancellor of the San. Shortly before the case Lopukhina, . Bestuzhev stood for the dismissal of Anna Leopoldovna, . with family, . abroad, but it Lopukhins and refusal to renounce Anna Leopoldovna, . for their children, . from the rights to the Russian throne was the sad fate of Brunswick Family,
. To appease the minds, E. hastened to bring his nephew to St. Petersburg KarlaPetra-Ulrich, the son of Anna Petrovna and the Duke of Holstein. November 7, 1742, Mr.. just before the announcement of the case Lopukhins, he was proclaimed heir to the throne. Before he converted to Orthodoxy and church proclamation in his name had been ordered to add: the grandson of Peter the First.
Having secured for himself the power, E., hastened to reward people who have contributed to its entry to the throne or even have it brought. Grenadier company of the regiment received the name of the Transfiguration. Life Campaign. Soldiers enrolled in the nobility of the nobility, they are given seats. Officers of companies amounting to the generals' ranks, Razumovsky and Vorontsov appointed lieutenant, the rank of lieutenant-general, Shuvalov - second lieutenant, the rank of Major General. Sergeants were colonels, corporals - Captains. The tumult of the soldiers in the early days of Elizabeth's accession to the throne go to extremes and caused bloody clashes. Alexei Razumovsky, the son of a simple Cossack, showered with medals, in 1744, was already Count of the Roman Empire and left-handed husband E. His brother Cyril was appointed President of AAA. Science and hetman of Little Russia. So many had attended to E. Lestocq was granted the title of Count. At the same time began the rise of brothers Shuvalov, Alexander and Peter Ivanovich, with their cousin, Ivan Ivanovich. Most trusted E. Petrovna enjoyed head of the secret office, Alexander. He left a most hated memory. For Shuvalovs followed Vorontsov, appointed Vice-Chancellor, after the appointment of Count Bestuzhev Rumina-Chancellor. The Seven Years' War, the most powerful influence enjoyed Chancellor Bestuzhev-Rumin, which wanted to destroy Lestocq, but who was himself killed Lestocq. It is the interpretation of the letter of the French Ambassador Shetardi, friend Lestocq, and found in the letters sharp expressions of E. Petrovna. Lestocq estates were confiscated, he was exiled in Ustyug.
In foreign policy Bestuzhev could put Russia in a position that all the powers sought its alliance. Frederick II said that Bestuzhev took money from foreign courts, it is probably because the money they took all the advisers E. - Who is with Sweden, who is from Denmark, who is from France, who is with England, who is from Austria and Prussia. Everyone knew this, but on this delicate issue silent, until, as over Lestocq not broken out the storm on some other issues. When E. Petrovna came to the throne, then one would expect peace with Sweden, but the Swedish government has demanded the return of the achievements of Peter Vel. That led to the resumption of war. The Swedes were defeated and the world in Abo in 1743, had to make further territorial concessions to Russia (part of Finland, on p. Kyumen). In the same year the decision was the question of succession in Sweden, wavered this country from 1741, with the death of Ulrica-Eleonora. On the advice of Bestuzhev, was sent to help the armed party of Holstein and heir to the throne was declared Adolf-Friedrich, the heir to his uncle E. Petrovna. War of the Austrian Succession and was finished with the assistance of Russia. Britain, the ally of Austria, being unable to hold on to its ally, the Austrian Netherlands, requested assistance from Russia. The appearance of the shell of the Russian troops on the banks of the river Rhine helped end the war and conclude peace Ahenskogo (1748). Influence of the Chancellor kept increasing, E. P. was on his side even in its dispute with the heir to the throne on the issue of Schleswig, who was. kn. would, contrary to the will of the empress, to keep outside his home. In the future, this discord threatened the unpleasantness Bestuzhev-Ryumin, but then he has managed to win over the Grand. kn. Ekaterina A.. Only during the Seven Years' War enemies of the Chancellor had finally managed to break his. Above the Chancellor of the court was dressed, he was deprived of his rank and exiled.
Important cases occurred at E. on the outskirts of Russia, there could flare up at the same time very dangerous fire. In Malorussia malorossiyskoy management board has left behind him a terrible displeasure. E. Petrovna, visiting Kiev in 1744, has calmed the region and were allowed to elect the Hetman in the face of his beloved brother, Kirill Razumovsky. But Razumovsky knew enough time had passed hetmanship. In his petition the case of malorossiyskoy board were transferred to the Senate, which directly depended on the city of Kiev. The end and Zaporozhye, because the steppe, since Anna Ioannovna settled more more. In the reign of E. Petrovna, encouraged the new settlers, in 1760, in the present counties of Alexandria and Bobrinets Kherson Province., The Serbs have been settled, of which it was formed two Hussars. These settlements are called New Serbia. Later, in the current Ekaterinoslav lips., In the counties Slavyanoserbsk and Bakhmut, settled new Serb settlers (Slavyanoserbii). Around the fortress of St.. Elizabeth, on the upper Ingula, formed from the Polish immigrants, Little Russians, Moldovans and splitters settlement, gave rise to Novoslobodskaya line. So Zaporozhye almost all sides were constrained already formed after the second Novorossia. In the first New Russia, ie in the Orenburg region, in 1744, due to serious unrest, Bashkirov, was established Orenburg Province., The governor of which was subject to Ufa province and Stavropol in. current Samara Province. Orenburg gubernat. was appointed Neplyuev. He found Bashkir revolt; Bashkirs could easily connect with other aliens; troops have Neplyuev was little - but he picked up against the Bashkir Kirgiz teptyarey, Meshcheryakov, and rebellion was put down. A lot of it helped by the fact that, owing to the small number of Russian influence in the region, works with Anna Ioanovna built there, as a fortress. General dissatisfaction and anger the natives had an effect on the remote NE: Chukchi and Koryak, in the Okhotsk and threatened extermination of the Russian population. Had a particularly violent Koryak entrenched in a wooden prison: they burned freely, but would not surrender to Russian.
A few weeks after taking the throne, E. issued a decree naming of, . that the Empress found a violation of the order of government, . established its parent: "the machinations of some (people) invented by the Supreme Privy Council, . then cabinet composed in equal strength, . as was the Supreme Privy Council, . only the variable name, . from what happened a lot of neglect cases, . and justice and most of the weakness has come ",
. The Senate, with ES, the force of what he did before or since had. The number of senators was increased. The Senate stopped crying bezuryaditsy in boards, and in provincial institutions. Archangel prosecutor, for example. reported that the secretaries go to the post when they want, from what keep convicts long. Especially important service in the Senate has one of the years when the poor common people in Moscow were in danger to remain without salt. Due diligence of the Senate, the salt was delivered and the salt tax, one of the most important revenue of the treasury, was put in order. Since 1747, when the timetable was eltonskaya salt, hydrochloric question not to aggravate already to such an extent. In 1754, at the suggestion of Peter Ivanovich Shuvalov, abolished internal customs and gates. According to C. M. Solovyov, this act completed the unification Vost. Russia, destroying the traces of the specific division. On projects of the same Shuvalov: 1) Russia, to ease the severity of conscription, was divided into 5 bands: each band kit comes in 5 years, 2) established by commercial banks and nobility. But the merits Shuvalov not all are understood, and the results of its self-interest at all were present. He drew in its monopoly seals and fisheries in the White and Caspian seas; zaveduya remake fashion coin, he privately gave money at interest. Razumovsky, the people closest to E. Petrovna, a public affairs should not enter, their influence was great only in the field of church administration. Both Razumovsky were imbued with boundless respect for the memory of Stephen Yavorsky and hostility to the memory of Feofan Prokopovich. Therefore, the high level of the hierarchy began to be erected a person who hated the educational aspirations Prokopovich. Most married E. with Razumovsky was suggested to her confessor. Liberation of Russia from the German timeservers, thus aggravating the already then a strong spirit of religious intolerance, cost Russia dearly. Sermons in this direction were not spared, not only Germans, but also the European science. In Munnich and Ostermann saw emissaries of Satan sent to destroy the Orthodox faith. Pastor Sviyazhsky m-ovarian cancer, Dimitri Sechenov, called his opponents the prophets of Antichrist, who silenced the preachers of Christ's words. Ambrose Yushkevich accused the Germans in that they deliberately slowed the progress of education in Russia, Russian disciples drove Peter In. - A weighty accusation, supported by Lomonosov, which, however, equally in the same mrakolyubii accused and German academics, and clergy. Get their hands on censorship, the Synod began by saying that he had filed in 1743, Mr.. to sign a decree banning the import into Russia of the book without preview. Against the draft of the decree arose Chancellor Count Bestuzhev-Ryumin. He tried to convince IE that not only the prohibition, but the delay in the censorship of foreign books is harmful impact on education. He advised the release of the censorship of the book historical, philosophical, theological view only the books. But the council did not stop the Chancellor of jealousy to ban books. Thus, the book was banned Fontenelle "On the set of worlds". In 1749, Mr.. was told to pick a book, printed by Peter In. - Featron or historic disgrace ", translated by Gabriel Buzhanskim. In the church itself were observed phenomenon, . that pointed to the need for greater education of the clergy: where among the dissenters grew bigot samosozhiganiya, . Our pastors do not know how to stop the word wild fanaticism and appealed for help from the secular authorities,
. But representatives of the clergy were armed, even against the church schools. Archangel arhiepisk. Varsonofy expressed displeasure at the large school, built in Arkhangelsk: school de-loved bishops cherkasishki, t. e. Little Russians. No wonder that the people of this mentality had to face in public and legislative issues with Senate. E. Petrovna, on her personal character, significantly mitigated the criminal law, our abolitionist, as well as torture by korchma Cases. The Senate presented a report to the girl and seventeen were completely freed from the torture. Synod and then rebelled against mitigation, arguing that the infancy, according to the teachings of St.. father, is considered only up to 12 years. It was forgotten that the decisions referred to by the Synod, had been issued for the southern countries, where 11, 12 years, starting puberty girls. At the beginning of the reign of E. oberprokurorom in the synod was appointed Prince. Yakov Shakhovskoi man side, proud but honest. He demanded regulations, instructions, the chief prosecutor and the roster of unsolved cases, he brought only rules of procedure, instructions have been misplaced and only then brought him to generating. Attorney kn. Trubetskoy. During conversations in the church was ordered to take penalties. Fines collected officers, who lived in monasteries; synod began to argue that the fines collected should be the clergy. This altercation is most clearly indicated the need for education. But, for a total of almost hate to education, required a mighty power to defend its necessity. Therefore worthy of reverence the memory of Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov and University, which have linked their names with useful activity of the reign of E. Petrovna. In their project, in 1765, founding a mosk. University, any high school in Moscow and Kazan, and then was based in the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. On the personal nature of E. was alien to the political ambition, it is likely that if it were at Anna Ioanovna not been persecuted, it would not have thought about the political role. In his youth, and it only took dance, and old age - fun table. Love for far niente prevailed in it every year. So she spent two years could not come to answer the letter from France. King.
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