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Pavel Petrovich

( Emperor)

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Biography Pavel Petrovich
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Pavel Petrovich - All-Russia Emperor, son of Emperor. Peter III and Empress Catherine II, the genus. Sep 20. 1754, came to the throne after the death of Catherine II, November 6, 1796, Mr.. He spent his childhood in the not quite normal conditions, which left a sharp print on his character. Immediately after birth he was taken by the Empress Elizabeth from the mother, since then have rarely had a chance and see it, and handed over to the care of nurses. From 1760, Mr.. his chief mentor became H. I. Panin, who was appointed at its Great Chamberlain and kept this place and on accession to the throne of Peter Fedorovich. The overthrow of Peter III and the reign of Catherine the situation had changed little Paul. There was at that moment the party, . wish to see on the throne P.; and Catherine will provide only the right to equality, . but she did not have sufficient forces to carry out their projects, . and this circumstance, which added only to the previously generated by the alienation between mother and son a new dimension - the rivalry, . which was to later develop particular,
. Immediately after the accession of Catherine was asked to d'Alembert, offering him a job counselor AP, but after refusing Alembertian search for a new teacher was not renewed and P. fully remained in the hands of Panina. The final plan was drawn up education P.; on this assessment led education. Prince was divided into two periods: the first, before the age of 14, it was supposed to give him a basic education, the second ought to devote a "direct public science". This plan was executed, but without much success. P. studied history, geography, Russian and German languages, mathematics, astronomy, physics, arts, mathematics, worked with him in 1762-65 he. S. A. Poroshin, former, however, at this time and is directly under the guidance of his mentor Panina and left behind a diary. serves as the main and almost the only source for consultation with boyish years of life N. Scribes led. Prince was appointed in 1763, at the choice of most of Catherine Archimandrite Platon, subsequently mosk. Metropolitan. But part of poor health and poor on the nature of the ability of PA, part of the inability of educators, not allowed to lead. Prince greatly benefit from the give him lessons: education has not developed in him the habit of hard work, has not produced a strong knowledge and are not reported broad concepts. Since 1768, Mr.. to P. was invited to teach the state science Gy. N. Warm, but classes with him were completely unsuccessful, accused even by his contemporaries in that he deliberately evoked in P. aversion to studies. On the other hand is in the nature of the child P. Poroshin notice the extreme nervousness and sensitivity and excessive temper. Education not only suppressed these features, but also contributed to the development of imagination and the boy dreamy pride, combined with a high proportion of suspicion towards people around them. These dangerous inclinations of nature and education over time evolved into a complex character, in the creation of which perhaps the most important value belonged, however, the effect of the ratio P. the mother and the State. Sep 29. 1773 g. P. married Princess Wilhelmina gessendarmshtadtskoy, upon adoption of Orthodoxy betrothed Natalia Alexeyevna. However, his education was declared complete and Panin removed from him, but the P. not received any participation in public affairs. His first wife died in April 1776. childbirth and 26 September 1776. He married again, to Princess virtembergskoy Sophia Dorothy, in Orthodoxy Maria Feodorovna. And after that, during the life of Catherine, a place occupied by P. in government circles, was an observer, conscious of the right to the supreme leadership of the affairs and deprived of opportunities to exercise this right to change even the smallest details in the course of affairs. This situation is particularly favorable for the development of P. critical, . is particularly sharp and jaundiced hue due to the personal element, . wide stream into it, . and yet could be the unconditional, . less than it was at the basis of acquaintance with the practice and the essence of public administration,
. Sharply condemning the policy of his mother, who seemed to him entirely based on the popularity and pretense, P. not satisfied initially criticized, . and ascended to some of the ideas of a positive nature, . dreaming about the introduction in Russia, . under the auspices of the autocratic power, . strict legal control and limiting the privileges of the nobility, . but these dreams were not destined to get any normal development,
. Gradual worsening of relations between Catherine and her son led, finally, to the fact that P. become isolated from his wife in the Gatchina estate, donated to him by his mother in 1783. here built himself a special little world, all different from the St. Petersburg. Here all his cares and concerns were limited, for lack of another case, the device so-called. Gatchina army - several battalions who are placed under his direct command, and questions about their uniforms and training for fully absorbed his attention. Militarism was gradually sole content of his life, . the idea of making the legal order in public life have been transformed into the care of the strict discipline, . covering and a front-line service, . and all public and private life, . and this difficult, . seemingly, . racing was easily accomplished within the narrow limits of the Gatchina estate,
. The last years of life P. as the heir to the throne were marked by another influence, which made him the French Revolution. From the fear of the latter was not entirely free even Catherine, with its sober, P. same, . agreeable associate promiscuity, . he observed in the government and society, . with liberal ideas, . lessons from his mother, . and oppose the idea of the order, . representing a very grateful and receptive soil for a hint from Russia who went to the French emigres,
. Catherine with a fear of looking at life and mood led. Prince and in the last decade of his life finally had the intention to remove him from the throne, passing the last senior to her grandson, Alexander Pavlovich. In 1794, Mr.. such a project was even introduced to the discussion board, but here we meet resistance caused Catherine to take him back. Nevertheless, she did not abandon his intention and tried to implement it another way, enlisting the support that La Harpe, the Maria Feodorovna, then, finally, most of Alexander. In all of these persons is not met, however, compassion, and her sudden illness and death, November 6, 1796, ceased such efforts and opened P. way to the throne. Accession n. was marked by an immediate and abrupt demolition of all the orders of Catherine's reign, made without any plan, but rather under the influence of feelings, rather than as a result of any system. One of the first cases of the new emperor's coronation was the remains of Peter III, then transferred from the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in the Winter Palace, and hence, together with the coffin of Catherine II, the fortress. April 5, 1797, Mr.. perfected the coronation of the P. and on the same day, launching several important statutes. Ordinance establishes a certain order of succession to the throne in succession to the throne and assumed the end of Peter I arbitrarily proclaimed Emperor in the appointment of a successor. "Establishment of the Imperial Surname" defines how the contents of the ruling house, reserving for this purpose special, so-called. specific estates, and providing management. Another decree, issued under the same date, was the serfs, and forbidding the administration of barshchina on Sundays, together implied the council landlords limited to three-day barshchina peasants. The majority of this law was understood in the sense of prohibition higher corvee than three days a week, but in that sense he did not have any practical application for most PA or by his successors. Which followed some time later decree forbade selling in the Ukraine the peasants without land. With these decrees, in any case we say that the Government once again had taken over the protection of the interests of serfs, bad blend other actions, P., aimed to increase the number of serfs. Convinced by his ignorance of the actual state of things, as if the fate of the landed peasants better fate treasury, P. during his short reign gave away up to 600,000 souls state peasants in the private domain. On the other hand, the right upper classes were in P. severe cuts, . compared to the, . they were installed in the preceding reign: the most important articles petitioning charters to the nobility and towns were abolished, . were destroyed and government of these estates, . and some personal rights of their members, . as for example,
. freedom from corporal punishment. Equally dramatic changes were in the affairs of this administration, among which, thanks to the tastes of AP, to the fore military affairs. The appearance of the troops was changed to the Prussian model, as well as methods for their learning and at the same harsh discipline, amounted to cruel replaced lazy debauchery Catherine Guard. The severity of this change has increased the personal nature of IP, its unbridled temper and a tendency to very steep and arbitrary measures. As a result, the nobles crowds began to leave the service and it did not slow down effect on the composition of the administration, so the 132 officers of the Guards cavalry regiment, . in the service at the time of accession of P., . the end of his reign, there are only two, for a second lieutenant in 1796, Mr.,
. in 1799. were already colonels. Almost the same happened in other branches of service: the post of Procurator-General, for example. 4 years reign P. changed 4 persons. Through all these rapid shifts, . through voluntary and involuntary removal of speculators in the past have risen and began to reign at the head of government people without skills and knowledge, . but for the fact possessed servility and compliance, . brought to the last degree, . and mainly recruited from the so-called,
. Gatchina immigrants in kind Arakcheeva, Kutaysona, Obolyaninova and t. n. The end result of this turn of affairs was the complete breakdown of administrative machinery and the growth of increasingly serious discontent in the society. Last and outside the scope of service relationships subjected to the pressure. Convinced of the need to protect Russian. Society of perverse ideas of the Revolution, P. made the whole persecution of liberal thought and overseas tastes, bare, with all the severity with which it took place, rather curious character. In 1799, Mr.. banned young people travel abroad for study and to avoid the need for such trips is based Dorpat Univ. In 1800, Mr.. banned the import of all kinds of books and even music from abroad, even earlier, in 1797, Mr.. private printing houses were closed, and set strict censorship for Russian books. At the same time imposed a ban on French fashion and Russian gear, police determined the orders of the hour, when residents of the capital were put out fires in their homes, banished from the Russian language the word "citizen" and "fatherland" and t. n. Government system, . because you can use this word to the impulsive and contradictory actions of P., . reduced in such a way to establish discipline in the barracks society, . and the last meet deaf murmur, . the more dangerous, . more diligently than he drowned,
. Lack of a clear and sharp fluctuations distinguished themselves and the foreign policy P. He began his reign by declaring that Russia needs peace, initiated by Catherine the cessation of war with Persia and exit from the coalition formed against France. But the defeat of Napoleon and the Austrian isolated kampoformiysky world changed the mood of P. and created a new coalition of Britain, Austria and Russia, which, by treaty with Russia, signed on December 23. 1798, and Turkey joined. In Prussia, refusing to stick to the coalition in the next year were suspended diplomatic relations. The share of Russia had the brilliant now, but in the role of barren. While P. keen on the role of advocate overthrow thrones, . Austria wanted only to consolidate their dominion in Italy, . and with such a difference of goals and mutual distrust of the Allies most brilliant victory of Russian troops under the command of Suvorov over the French in Italy could not deliver the lasting triumph of the cause of the coalition,
. The capture of Malta by the British, which P. took under his wing, adopting in 1798. the title of Grand Master of the Order of St.. John of Jerusalem, and his quarrel with England. Russian troops were withdrawn and in 1800, Mr.. coalition finally collapsed. Not content with this, . AP, . under the influence of a part of councils Rastopchina, . part of the direct charm of Napoleon, . managed to entertain him with his plans and to raise the strings of his chivalrous nature, . began to draw closer to France and the thought of working with her struggle against England,
. In September 1800 g. on British ships that were in the Russian ports, was embargoed. The following year, P. decided to move to the offensive and on January 12. 1801 g. sent Ataman of the Don troops gene. Orlov, an order to make the whole army to march on India. After a month with a small Cossacks began a campaign among 22507 people. 12 unicorns and 12 guns, without the baggage, supplies and plans, all the army was divided into 4 trains, one of which commanded a gene. Major Platov, especially for this released from the fortress. This campaign, which was accompanied with terrible deprivation, was not, however, brought to completion by the death of P. Recently life P. Mistrust and suspicion reached its particularly high degree, turning even the members of his own family. In February 1801, Mr.. He sent his nephew from Germany Maria Feodorovna, . 13-year-old Prince Eugene of Wц+rttemberg, . and on arrival he found him an unusual location, . indicated its intention to adopt it and even hinted at the possibility for him to take the Russian throne, . with the removal of the last of Alexander,
. But on the night of 11 to 12 March 1801, Mr.. P. died suddenly, in the architecture of the Mikhailovsky Palace (the current Engineering College).

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