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ALEXANDER I

( Russia Emperor)

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ALEXANDER I - (1777 - 1825) - the Emperor of Russia from 1801. The eldest son of Paul I. Born 12 (23 new style), 1777, in St. Petersburg. Upbringing of Alexander I, Catherine II led. The greatest influence on the young man had a Swiss F. La Harpe, educator and a moderate Republican. Despite the excellent selection of teachers and an outstanding natural intelligence, Aleksandr I did not get a serious education because of laziness and dislike to the doctrine. Classes are completed in 1793, when Catherine II zhenila grandson of Princess Luise of Baden (in Orthodoxy Elizabeth Alekseevna). The need to juggle between hating each other's father and grandmother taught Alexander I "live in two minds, . keep the two faces of the gala (Klyuchevskii). Knowing the decision of Catherine II the throne did not pass to Paul, . and he, . Alexander I publicly declared, . did not want to rule and would prefer to go abroad, "a private person, . putting your happiness in the company of friends and in the study of nature ",
. When Paul became emperor, he appointed Alexander I, the military governor of St. Petersburg, chief of the Life Guards Semenov regiment, inspector of cavalry and infantry, and later - the chairman of the military department of the Senate. Fear of tough and demanding father completed the formation of features of his character: "He who prelstitel" (MM. Speranski), the ruler of the weak and wicked "(A.S. Pushkin), "Sphinx, are not solved until death" (P.A. Vyazemskij), "is the true Byzantine ... thin, cheesy, clever "(Napoleon), Crown, Hamlet, whose whole life haunted shadow of slain father" (AI. Herzen). After the murder of Paul I in his manifesto, Alexander I declared that he would rule "under the laws and the heart in memory of his favorite Bose died grandmother of our". Even in 1796, Alexander I, was formed around a circle of young aristocrats, TN. Private Committee (AA. Czartoryski, P.A. Stroganov, NN. Novosiltsev, VP. Kochubei), who considered it necessary to abolish serfdom and help create a "legally-free institutions". According to the biographer of Alexander I led. Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich, Czar Alexander I "has never been a reformer, but in the early years of his reign, he was more conservative of all those around him advisors". But for the consolidation of power required to "days of Alexander's great start". Alexander I abolished all the innovations of Paul I: Restore "charters" the nobility and towns, freed nobles and clergy from corporal punishment, has announced an amnesty to all who have fled abroad, returned from exile to 12 thousand. disgraced, and repressed, abolished the Secret Expedition dealing with death investigation and. After 1801 were forbidden to print ads for the sale of serfs without land, but were allowed to carry out such sale. In 1803 issued a decree on the free cultivators, permitting peasants to swim to freedom by agreement with landowners. The deal was accompanied by such extortionate terms that this right was exercised less than 0.5 percent of the serfs. However, the first time in the history of Russia for the peasantry was recognized legal right to own land, and landowners were grounds for dismissal of their serfs to the land for ransom. Censorship statute of 1804 was the most liberal in the XIX century. in Russia. In 1803 - 1804 has been reformed public education: learning to representatives of all classes, introduced the continuity of training programs and created new and you are un-privileged high schools - Demidov (Yaroslavl) and Tsarskoselsky. State authorities have been converted. Management. Through the efforts MM. Speranskii old Peter's College replaced Ministries. In 1811, the law strictly delimited the rights and duties of the Senate, the Committee of Ministers and the Council of State. The new order of governance existed with minor changes until 1917. In 1805 - 1807 Alexander I took part in the coalition against Napoleon, was defeated at Austerlitz (1805) and was forced to conclude an extremely unpopular in Russia, the Peace of Tilsit (1807). But successful war with Turkey (1806 - -1812) and Sweden (1808 - 1809) strengthened the international position of Russia. Were attached Vost. Georgia (1801), Finland (1809), Bessarabia (1812) and Azerbaijan (1813), Grand Duchy of Warsaw (1815). Since 1810 passed re-rus. army, the construction of fortresses, but the archaic system of conscription and the feudal economy was unable to complete this. At the beginning of the war of 1812, Alexander I, convinced of his inability to lead troops, handed over the command of Barclay de Tolly, then MI. Kutuzov. Russian military successes. army of Alexander I made the supreme arbiter of Europe, and in 1813 - 1814 Alexander I led the anti-French coalition, and went to Paris at the head of the allied armies. In 1814, the Senate presented to Alexander I the title of "blessed, benevolent powers reductant". Having granted a liberal constitution of Kingdom of Poland, in 1818, he promised that this arrangement will be extended to other lands, "when they reached the proper maturity". In 1816 - 1819 was held peasant reform in the Baltic. Were prepared secret plans for abolishing serfdom in Russia, but, faced with tough opposition from the nobility, Alexander I stepped. Since 1816 established military settlements, and the role of Alexander I in their establishment is not less significant than the AA. Arakcheeva. From 1814 the king carried away mysticism, closer to his Archimandrite Photius. At the same time there was a question of succession. Legitimate heir was appointed his brother Nicholas, but the decision remained a secret. In 1821, after returning from abroad, Alexander I received a list of the most active members of the secret society, but threw it into the fire, saying: "I do not judge them", apparently forgetting his youthful mood. However, in 1822 Alexander I issued a rescript banning secret societies and Masonic lodges, and in 1821 - 1823 introduced an extensive network of secret police in the Guard and the Army. In 1825, he received credible information about a conspiracy against him in the army, . went south, . Wishing to visit the military settlements, . but caught a bad cold on the road from Balaklava in the St. George Monastery, . and 19 November (1 December, new style) 1825 died in Taganrog,
. The unexpected death of Alexander I, human health and still youngish, spawned numerous legends. One of them is the fact that Alexander I threw the kingdom and disappeared under the name of Elder Fyodor Kuzmich.

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