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Alex Balandin

( Chemist)

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Biography Alex Balandin
photo Alex Balandin
Aleksei Aleksandrovich Balandin (20.12.1898 years [Enisejsk] - 22/05/1967, the [Moscow])
. Russia (russia)

. In the history of Soviet science, Academician AA Balandin came as the largest chemist, author of the multiplet theory of heterogeneous catalysis, will link the catalytic activity of a substance with its atomic and molecular characteristics
. The theory made it possible to carry out many reactions that are important for the chemical industry, and specifically to select catalysts for technically important processes.
. Numerous works Balandin (bibliography of his works includes 1,054 titles and 17 inventor's certificates) brought the national Catalytic Science widespread international fame and recognition
. American chemist FG Chyapetta Balandina called "a giant in the field of catalysis" 1.

Balandin died May 22, 1967, Mr.. 69 th year of life. Many students said goodbye to his teacher, recalled his life, marked by the tragic years in prison.

It was in 1936 ...

In July, the scientist vacationing at his dacha near Moscow. July 16 near his home stopped a black car, which came from unknown person. They searched and invited him to follow them. Less than an hour, as he was in the chamber Butyrskaya. During interrogations, the professor did not do it to ourselves and to sign the indictment specify. NKVD diligently tried to find evidence of anti-Soviet activities of Professor Balandin, who visited for granitsey2. But "business" AA Balandin these data did not contain. It is unlikely that they have and complete biographical information of the arrested. Meanwhile, in front of them sat a highly chelovek3 with an interesting biography.

Aleksei Aleksandrovich Balandin born December 20, 1898. G. Yeniseysk Krasnoyarsk. His father - Alexander A. Balandin (1868-1919), born Yeniseisk Candidate of Natural Sciences of St. Petersburg University, an honorary citizen of St. Petersburg, owned industrial enterprises. Mother - Vera Arsen'evna (1871-1943), born Emelyanova, was born in the village Novoselova Minusinskogo County Yenisei province. In 1893, Mr.. graduated from senior women Bestuzhevskie courses in St. Petersburg on the physical-chemical separation.

The winter of 1893/94 g. attended lectures at the Sorbonne and worked at the Pasteur Institute in Parizhe4.

The house was a rich library Balandin. In childhood Alesha Balandin began to study European languages. In 1908, Mr.. parents decided that their son has to finish high school Popova in Moscow, which was famous for its highly qualified teachers. To this end, they moved to Moscow, where he lived during each winter, constantly returning to Siberia on school holidays.

Gymnasium of their favorite son graduated in 1916. with a gold medal. In the same year a young man entered the Moscow University medical school, but soon moved to Tomsk, where in 1917-1920 he. studied medicine, and then at the Chemistry Department of Tomsk State University. Not satisfied with the level of teaching of science, he leaves the Tomsk University, and in December 1920,. moved to Petrograd. Having fourth-year student of chemical separation of the Petrograd University, Balandin simultaneously began working fellow at the Radium Institute under the leadership VGKhlopin. He was commissioned to develop a new method for extracting radium from the ores of radium by adsorption of colloids. The work of this failed, because they do not have the necessary equipment.

Spring 1921. LA Kulik - a famous scientist, researcher meteorites, Balandin invited to take part in the expedition of the meteorite Russia Academy of Sciences. The expedition sent to Siberia. Young scientist willingly agreed to go to my native land. At the end of the expedition as a chemist, radiologist Balandin went to Tomsk to his mother and sister to take them to Petrograd. Driving through Moscow, Balandin had to make a stop, as Aleksei ill with typhus. On recovery, he decided to settle in Moscow. There he entered the chemical department 1-st Moscow University, where he graduated in May 1923. specializing in physical chemistry. Graduate work he performed under the guidance Zelinsky - author of classic studies in the field of organic catalysis. On his recommendation Balandin after graduation was left to the Department of Organic and analytical chemistry as a scientific officer, and then post-graduate Research Institute of Chemistry at MSU. After finishing graduate school in 1928. He is credited as an assistant, from 1930. - Associate professor of the same department.

In 1929, Mr.. RSFSR People's Commissariat Balandin provides a year-long research trip to Germany and France to get acquainted with the achievements of chemical science, the methods of the experiment and to teaching. Most of the time of his trip Balandin held in Berlin, where he worked in the Institute of Physical Chemistry under the leadership of the famous German physical chemist M. Bodenstein - Director of the Institute of. While living in Berlin, a young scientist has visited cities in Germany, where he got acquainted with the scientific research conducted in academic and educational institutions, as well as in Heidelberg, where from May 28 to June 1, 1930. held Bunsen physicochemical congress on molecular spectroscopy and structure of. Physical chemist at the congress brought together from all over Germany and from abroad. The participation of our scientists in the Congress expresses, in his words, in speeches in diskussiyah5.

Then Balandin went to France. In Paris and Lille, he became acquainted with the chemical laboratories and research by French scientists. In its thorough report on foreign travel scholar wrote that "his work abroad as fruitful: as a result of her were 4 Published scientific works ... First of his pre-during their stay, I used to visit a number of lectures, . to see how the method of teaching, . and for the thorough assimilation of the teachings of such outstanding specialists, . as Schrodinger (wave mechanics), . Laue (X-ray spectra), . Nernst, . Einstein and others,
. ... Collision with foreign scientific thought and, in particular, frequent conversation with Professor. Bodenstein of catalysis have given me new ideas "6.

Returning from a trip, Balandin in 1930. first in our country and abroad began to read at Moscow University special course on Organic Catalysis, which included physical and chemical basis of catalysis, theory, research methods and catalytic synthesis of organic substances.

. In January 1934
. Balandin claimed the rank of professor. Applying for a Balandin conferring the title of professor in the department of Organic Chemistry, Academician AN Frumkin in his review wrote:

. "I think of AA Balandin significant contribution to world science and to confirm such an assessment could lead to authoritative reviews of foreign scientists" 7
. January 21, 1935, Mr.. Academician ND Zelinsky sent the Qualification Commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences of the following letter: "Professor Alexander Balandin has published several studies on the catalysis of organic compounds having a high theoretical value. He certainly is worthy of the degree of Doctor of chemistry without defending a thesis "8.

. March 31 of that year Balandin received a letter from the permanent secretary of Academician VP Volgin with the notification of, . that the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences at its meeting on 15 March due to the submission of the Qualification Commission for Chemistry awarded him the degree of Doctor of Chemistry for his work on catalysis of organic soedineniy9.,

. In 1935
. Balandin organized the laboratory of Organic Catalysis at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences, . where he led research, . associated with the study of the mechanism of the most important reactions of organic catalysis, . development of the multiplet theory of catalysis and the study of catalytic reactions.,

. June 15, 1936, Mr.
. Commission of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences awarded the prize of a small. Mendeleev Professor Balandin for his work on catalysis in organic chemistry. It was decided to publish an article about scientists who have received Mendeleev Prize, with the characteristic of their scientific achievements.

Article about Balandin, however, did not appear. July 16 followed by the arrest of Mendeleev Prize laureate. In his autobiography, written September 2, 1939, Balandin, wrote: "In July 1936. was arrested in March 1937. administratively exiled to Orenburg for 5 years, where he worked in the analytical laboratory of plant Avtotraktordetal, but with III.1938 on VI.1939 - professor of chemistry and physics in high school adults? 1. In May 1939, Mr.. was rehabilitated to review the case (case dismissed), returned to Moskvu10 and 16.VI.1936 restored to their former posts in the MSU 11.

. Kind words, we must recall the courageous scientists, . Academicians Zelinsky, . Bakh, . Frumkin, . Vernadsky and Kurnakov, . are not afraid to speak in rebuttal of Professor Balandin involvement in any anti-Soviet activities.,

. Academician AN Bach testified: "I know Professor
. Balandin as a talented scientist more than 10 years. Beside the work on catalysis in organic chemistry in recent years, he emerged as a specialist, acquired the reputation not only in our Union, but also abroad.

. For all the time my acquaintance with him Balandin I have not heard anything that could give rise to doubt his loyalty to the Soviet government
. Rather, I got the impression about him as a conscientious supporter of the new system 12.

. A similar view is taken by Academician AN Frumkin:

. "I strongly believe in the complete inability to AA Balandin would be involved in any anti-Soviet activities, or even moods
. AA Balandin, I know a long time and has repeatedly met with him on joint work at the university and various scientific and public organizations. Recently scientific activity AA Balandin was awarded a special prize - awarded prizes Mendeleev Academy of Sciences.

Member of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences. Academician Frumkin, 13.

In April, 1938. VM Molotov, received a letter signed by the ND Zelinsky, VI Vernadsky and NS Kurnakov. The greatest scientists have been asked to release AA Balandin of zaklyucheniya14. The letter remained unanswered, but apparently. Molotov reported to Stalin about it. And although the intercession of the "father of nations" do not stand, we can assume that the opinion of venerable scientists forced to reconsider the case Balandina. A year later, the scientist was released and rehabilitated.

Soon after rehabilitation at the request of the Director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences Nesmeyanov Balandin September 1, 1939. approved by the head of the kinetics of contact processes in the laboratory of Organic Catalysis, . whose task was to study the catalytic transformation of organic reactions of saturated hydrocarbons in the reactive unsaturated compound in order to benefit from natural and industrial gases.,

. Under the direction of Alexei Alexandrovich by early 1941
. were carried out research related to the conversion of butane to butylene and butylene to butadiene, which in turn through polymerization technique in synthetic rubber. Successful industrial design of this process offers great opportunities of practical translation industry by UK food raw materials for non-food. In the same laboratory technique was developed catalytic conversion of ethylbenzene to styrene, which is an important part of a particularly strong synthetic rubbers.

. During the Great Patriotic War Balandin worked in Kazan, the UDA evacuated Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences
. Here, a scientist made a series of works that are of practical importance.

October 23, 1942, Mr.. in one of his letters from Kazan Balandin reported: "We have obtained interesting results on the continuation of works related to the SC, which are now being implemented" 15. For a series of studies carried out in 1943-1944., Balandin in 1946. was awarded the Stalin Prize II degree. He was also awarded the Prize. SV Lebedev I degree for work on the catalytic production of monomers, synthetic rubber.

In 1948, Mr.. Balandin became dean of the chemistry department of Moscow State University and at the same time he joined the Communist Party.

We thought that the nightmarish "dream" of arrest, more than ever Mr. again, but swept over the postwar wave of repression, and on the night of April 1, 1949. Balandin, member of the Academy of Sciences SSR16, arrested again. Was again searched, but nothing confirms the accusation not okazalos17. Prosecution does not podpisal18.

Academician Balandin was convicted under Article 58 to 10 years for phase directed to the north. Norilsk Stalin prize-winner lived in the barracks with ugolovnikami19. The arrest of head of the scientific school was a painful blow to many of its students and staff. Received an order to stop research on the multiplet theory. In the work of its founder can not be invoked. Dedicated to Alexei Alexandrovich employees were dismissed from the Moscow University. Pupil Balandina, . Doctor of Chemical Sciences AA Tolstopyatova recalls in 1951: 'One day at a party, . on the protection of dissertation, . one of my graduate students (Belsky) said aphorism.ru / tost / "title =" toast "> toast" to the health of Academician AA Balandin ",
. After this evening was a commission, which was tasked to understand what happened. As a result, student Belsky was expelled from the university, and I uvolena'20.

Norilsk Balandin spent a long four years and three months. The first time he guarded with the criminals were taken to the black work. In early 1951. chief engineer of the Norilsk Mining and Metallurgical Combine has attracted scientists to work in experimental metallurgical shop, in whose laboratory he studied the kinetics of recovery of nickel oxide to obtain an active nickel powder. In June 1953. the Office of Works came ETAT indicating immediately send academician Balandina in Moscow. Home Alexey returned a sick man, exhausting work undermined his health.

Learned of the tragic years of the life of Alexei Alexandrovich and surprised steadfastness of his character. It would seem that offense was fill up the cup and break the man. But through all the tests he carried the torch of life-affirming love of science. Enough to read his list of works published between the two arrests, ie. in 1939-1949 he. and after 1953 g.21, to be sure.

According to one of the students Balandin, Professor AP Rudenko, "all his thoughts were given only to science. He thought, wrote, read everywhere and at every opportunity (in the office, at home, in the country, on vacation, in hospital) and even in the most unlikely conditions for scientific work. Meeting the needs of scientific creativity was the main desire and devoted all his activities. Therefore, neither frequent severe illness, or injustice and misery of life did not break the creative spirit, faith in the correctness and relevance of their chosen path 22.

In 1954, Mr.. he led created the Institute of Organic Chemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences Laboratory. Zelinsky and the rest of his days was its undisputed leader. In 1954-1961 he. Balandin - Chairman of the Scientific Council on the issue of "Scientific basis for selection of catalysts to the Office of Chemical Sciences of the USSR.

. It is time to talk about what had inspired the scientist and what he has completely devoted his scientific life.

. In 1929, Mr.
. saw the publication of his work "On the theory of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Model degidrogenizatsionnogo Catalysis ", which were formulated the main provisions of the proposed them in 1927. multiplet theory of heterogeneous catalysis. Read the beginning of this article: "Current status of the doctrine of heterogeneous catalysis such, . that there is a need to withdraw from the extensive experimental material, some common basic principles, . which could then guide the study of each reaction ..,
. In this paper I attempt to make such a choice, suggests a hypothesis I allow myself to be called the hypothesis of multiplets. Not asking to fully explain why catalysis occurs, it raises a number of conditions to be met by the reactions 23.

. On what conditions, . determining the course of catalytic reactions, . discussed? Developing views Mendeleev and Zelinsky of catalysis, . Balandin expressed the fundamental position, . that of the atomic-molecular models necessitates the existence of structural and energetic match between the reacting molecules and catalysts: because of the short-range valence-chemical forces in the molecule react only atoms, . directly in contact with each other and with the catalyst,
. By the multiplet theory of the molecule as the starting material must be superimposed on the surface of the catalyst, . that between the atoms of the reacting molecules and atoms of the catalyst may have been necessary chemical bonds, . resulting in the emergence of intermediate active complex, . converted into final products.,

. Balandin not believed that his theory only
. His position, he clearly expressed in 1955. All-Union meeting on chemical kinetics and reactivity. "Currently planned convergence of different points of view on catalysis, and this is certainly a very valuable. In order to build a future theory of selection of catalysts, will need to use elements from various existing theories of catalysis. In this respect it may be a useful theory of intermediate compounds, and that is what she considers the chemistry of catalytic reactions. Since catalysis - a chemical phenomenon, then, of course, with those or other modifications of this theory can give much useful for the future complete theory of catalysis. Modify, . modernization of this theory, . namely the theory of surface intermediates, . associated with the study of activated adsorption, . clarifies the old theory of intermediate compounds, . although the basic idea remains the same - the chemical nature of the catalysts.,

. Another theory, which serves to build the theory of selection of catalysts is the multiplet theory, which takes into account the positive aspects of the theory of intermediate compounds
. Multiplet theory is based on a completely clear and a matter of course. It was first introduced in the teaching of Catalysis consideration of real size of atoms, the configuration of molecules, crystal lattices and energy values, transmitting the action of chemical forces - bond energy between the reacting atoms and catalysts.

. Thus, the multiplet theory of catalysis has pioneered the theory of the structure of matter
. No matter how varied in the future theory of catalysis, one can not escape consideration of the structure, the spatial and energy factors ... "25

In conclusion, it remains to be said about Balandin as head of the largest scientific school. Created at Moscow University, the world's first chair of organic catalysis, Alexey has trained many highly qualified specialists in the field of catalysis. In his lectures, he encouraged young people to apply their talents in the field of chemical processes using catalysts and these enrich the material culture of humanity. More than three hundred chemists katalitikov was prepared Balandin. Many of them became prominent scientists who are successfully working in research and educational institutions.

February 22, 1968, Mr.. prominent Soviet scientists, chemists, GK Boreskov, DV Sokolsky, JM Minachev, PA Rehbinder, SI Vol'fkovich appealed to the President of the Academy of Sciences, Academician Keldysh with the following request:

. "Dear Mstislav!

. We ask you to support our petition and appeal to the Council of Ministers on the next occasion.

. May 22, 1967, Mr.
. died a decorated scientist, . Laureate of State Prizes, . Communist Academician Aleksei Balandin - outstanding Soviet chemist with a worldwide reputation, . creator of the well-known multiplet theory of catalysis, . most prominent representative of the School of Chemistry, ND Zelinsky,
. In 1935. AA Balandin first time in the world and in SOVIET Union organized the laboratory of Organic Catalysis Laboratory kinetics of contact of organic reactions (LKKOR) at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences. Currently, thanks to the activities of the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Sciences of the USSR became the largest in our country Research Center on Catalysis. The achievements of the Laboratory LKKOR created and led for many years AA Balandin, provided a pioneering role in the development of the Institute of theory and practice of catalysis and catalytic science have brought the national internationally known. This laboratory belongs to the primacy of the theoretical rationale and implementation of a number of reactions which play an important role in our industry. In addition, Balandin established a large school of researchers, many of which are headed by departments and laboratories in our country and abroad. Most of the 900 scientific papers AA Balandin and co-workers and several of his books on the theory of catalysis were the result of the activities of this laboratory. Theoretical studies of AA Balandin have always been inextricably linked with the practice and the needs of the chemical industry, 80% of which were built on the catalysis ...

Based on the foregoing, request to establish a base LKKOR in Organic Chemistry of. Zelinsky USSR Memorial Laboratory of Academician AA Balandin, where his pupils and followers will continue and expand his research into the most promising areas of catalysis. This will serve both to perpetuate the memory of the outstanding Soviet scientist, and to the further development of catalytic science in our country 26.

The petition, however, remained unanswered.

March 22, 1990, Mr.. General Meeting of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR adopted a decree on confirmation of recovery in the terms of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR following the repressed scientists, . recovered earlier in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR decrees and orders of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: in the actual members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (academics) - Aleksei Aleksandrovich Balandin, . Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov, . Likhachev, Nikolai Petrovich, . Lukin, Nikolai Mikhailovich, . Lubawskie Matthew Kuzmich, . Ivan Luppol Kapitonovich,
. Ivan Mikhailovich Maisky, Osa (Obolensky) Lobanov, Peretz, Vladimir Nikolayevich, Sergei Fyodorovich Platonov, Nikolai Tulajkov Maksimovic, Stern Lin Solomonovna.


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