C ï¬ïL( Empress-Dragon)
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Biography C ï¬ïL
Modest concubine of the Chinese emperor secretly cherished the ambitious dreams. She came to power over the vast country by stealth, cunning and luck - gave birth to the emperor's son and heir. But Qi Xi was so severe that it destroyed the entire empire.
Pages of world history are full of atrocities bloodthirsty despots. Medieval Romania rules cruel Vlad, who liked to put their victims on a stake. In Russia, Tsar Ivan the Terrible had killed not only thousands of former courtiers, and his own son. In XX century, an African country ruled "Emperor" Bokassa, who feed sweetly meat of their victims
during the horrific cannibalistic rituals. As in the nature of the female black spider superior to its toxicity in male, and among the people there are kind of women, more ruthless and cruel than men. This was the Qi Xi - Chinese Empress, nicknamed the Dragon. In comparison with its actions pale crimes male tyrants. She drove a prison objectionable, introduced the practice of horrific torture and sent to death thousands of those who were considered traitors and servants of the West China. Her cruelty has reached its climax during the "Boxer Rebellion" in Beijing in 1900, when the Chinese declared war on the foreigners who controlled the lucrative opium trade.
. Concubine of Emperor
. Qi Xi incited the crowd to the appalling violence, unseen before in the Chinese capital
. She ordered his troops to fire cannons at the Catholic cathedral in downtown. It killed thousands of innocent men, women and children. Qi Xi ordered to cease firing only when a continuous roar of artillery from her headache. And then he gave a military statement did not no survivors. "My Empire must be cleansed with blood," - she said.
The carnage occurred eight years before her death, but it did not save feudal China, which she wanted to keep, but only hastened its collapse. Empress Qi Xi rule for fifty years and was the last ruler of the millions in China. She belonged to an ancient dynasty, the Manchu emperors.
Qi Xi was born in November 1835 in the family of the Manchu mandarin. She was destined to become a concubine in the imperial palace. At sixteen, she entered the palace of the rulers of China, "Closed City" in Beijing. This town was a world of extraordinary beauty and harmony, intended day of life, consisting mainly of the pleasures. Three thousand and three thousand concubines and eunuchs lived in the palace. There were rumors that the bedroom of the emperor visited ten lovers in the day. Concubines were distributed according to rank, and those who belonged to the lowest rank, could all live life in the palace, never met with the emperor. When Qi Xi first stepped on the imperial court, she was in the fifth, the lowest rank.
Climbing Qi Xi
The young girl was very ambitious, intelligent, and at that time, sufficient education. She made every effort to live in a gilded cage is not wasted. Eagerly read, plunging into the contents of the great books of the imperial libraries, persuaded the court to hire teachers to supplement the education. As the growing educated Qi Xi, increasingly thin became her trick. She has spent much effort to learn the rules of etiquette, which operated in the palace walls. She did her best to get closer to the emperor.
Qi Xi calculatedly made friends with the wife of the monarch, who was fifteen went over it and to the same barren. When the ailing Bishop decided that he needed an heir, he asked his wife to choose a concubine. And she chose Qi Xi. By the time she lived in the palace only three years, but one dream has already implemented. Now she was among the closest to the emperor. In April 1856 Qi Si had a baby. Naturally, the birth of the only son of the emperor, the heir to the throne of China, increased the influence of Qi Xi. Concubine became the center of attention and praise from the court. But for her most important was the attention that it gave the Emperor. He realized that this woman is very intelligent and capable, and give her more of their powers, while Qi Xi does not become a genuine right -
. telnitsey China.
. This was a period when China began to lose a centuries-old tradition of isolation from the outside world
. The French and the British came here as traders and brought new ideas which agitated the people and provoked anti-monarchist movement in some parts of the country. Most of the rebels were in Taiping. In response to the infiltration of foreigners Qi Xi translated yard in the mountains surrounding Beijing. She ordered the public to cut the heads of all the captured rebels, organized a campaign of terror against the Europeans and Christian missionaries. Foreigners were intimidated, their shops were burned, and if they then did not go, then risked his head. The Empress was determined to preserve the ancient traditions of feudal China and, of course, the power and wealth of the monarchy. It is believed that the presence of foreigners will threaten the national identity of China, and was convinced of the need for their expulsion from the country.
Brother of the aged emperor, Prince Kong did not share the isolationist views of Qi Xi. It scared the policy of expelling foreigners, he believed that China should be open to trade and new ideas. Through the head of the Empress he had asked the British and French on reconciliation - an act that Qi Xi could never forgive.
. The Empress at the time was concerned with consolidating its power, the introduction of new taxes and bloody struggle with the rebels in the north.
. When in 1861 the emperor died, his widow and Qi Xi received pravaregentov
. Although political power was to be equally owned by both, the widow of the emperor, that little interested in politics, eagerly offered Qi Xi to manage state. However, such an arrangement is not suited for all. There were no conspiracy to assassinate the regent-concubine. Qi Xi responded to this quickly
. and cruelly - ordered the destruction of about five hundred people, including a rich feudal lord, Xu Shen, who headed the conspirators.
. After a short reign of Tong Zhi
. Xu Shen belonged to an ancient race of military aristocracy
. Following the execution of his family was banished to a remote area of China, and the property confiscated by the Empress. The son of Qi Xi, which was to become emperor, as soon as he was seventeen years old, grew up in a rather unusual situation. Future emperor, Tun Kyi grew up healthy and a dear boy, left to the care of concubines and eunuchs, courtiers. From a young age he became addicted to unbridled orgies in the most heinous prigonah on the outskirts of Beijing and learned
. all sexual perversion in practice.
. When a young man of age, Qi Xi highest published a decree stating that her regency is over and begins reign of her son
. There was a young bride, but the Empress belonged to his son's marriage does not favorably, fearing competition from future bride. However, shortly after the publication of the decree on the transfer of power to the Emperor Tong Zhi died. In December 1874 he published a message which said: "I was lucky this month infected with smallpox!"
. For the Chinese, in such a message was not anything strange, because there was popular belief: those who pereboleet smallpox and will remain alive, marked by the gods
. But, obviously, the emperor could not long resist the disease. It was claimed that his body has been weakened by venereal disease. Less than two weeks after that message the young man died.
There were rumors that Qi Xi killed his own son. It seemed very likely. Charlotte Holden in his book "The Last Great Empress of China, wrote:" Tun Kyi could easily become infected with smallpox in one of the brothels and opium dens, which he visited in Beijing during their nocturnal outings. It can neither deny nor prove. But the external symptoms of this terrible disease - rash of acne on face and body
patient - no doubts.
Devil's way of killing
"Table cloths in China do not enjoy - continues to Charlotte Holden. - Instead, diners were served small square towel, steamed. They wiped their face and mouth after every meal. It was more hygienic than using a dry table napkins. But this method is suitable for other circuits. If a hot steamed towel to the face of the patient, covered with a contagious rash, and then attach to the person intended victim ... "Mr myself a person has never wiped. This menial duty performed officious eunuch. Here it is - a simple and devilishly effective way of killing. Eunuchs were subordinate to the Qi Xi. Of course, Qi Xi again declared himself ruler of China.
When Tung Chih died, his wife was pregnant. This resulted in rabies Qi Xi. If the daughter gave birth to an heir, he would be entitled to time to take the throne. This did not suit Qi Xi - she wanted to choose a successor, who would unquestioningly obey her will. She ordered the eunuchs to beat up a young widow, to cause miscarriage. Three months
unhappy committed suicide. Those who knew little Qi Xi, had no doubt that it made her vengeful arm, and to this tragedy. Regent emperor named his nephew, Tsai Tyan. He was given the imperial name of Guang Xu, which translated means "the brilliant heir". The boy was then four years, and he did not
danger Qi Xi.
Voices of discontent
Qi Xi Emperor chose herself, and it was a violation of the ancient law. There were discontented, those who are on the right blood ties Herod heredity could lay claim to the throne. Ten of the court expressed its indignation at the decision. Qi Xi listen to them, remember the words, but his decision is not changed.
The child grew up surrounded by love and concern for the widow of the old emperor, the one that was once so fond of the young ambitious husband's concubine. The widow was good and responsive. She liked the role of the grandmother, and she was sincerely attached to the boy. Qi Xi was very unhappy that he came under the influence of another woman. And when the old lady died, all the court were convinced that she was poisoned, after tasting the rice cakes, cooked itself Qi Xi. Heir to the throne was then only 11 years old. Now the Empress could enjoy absolute power. Those ten, who opposed its decision to declare the emperor's nephew, she executed a. Suppressing political opponents, Qi Xi strengthen its power. All the important positions put their relatives. To prevent the penetration of the circle of the powers of a stranger, has announced the engagement to the heir to his cousin.
In 1889, Qi Xi was forced to leave the regency. The young emperor is turned nineteen, but the official accession to the throne was postponed until his marriage. Qi Xi occupied residence in the outskirts of Beijing. Palace it was magnificent - the marble miracle among the green trees, surrounded by lakes, the surface of lotus flowers which rocked. The house was a lot of ornaments of pure gold. Such a luxury few could afford the monarchs.
It was claimed that Qi Xi stole money from the imperial treasury. And it was the main accomplice eunuch Li Lianying, cruel and brutal man, once corrupted her son.
Wrath of the Empress
Here's an example of authentic behavior of the Empress at the time. If she found in his garden falling leaf or petal, that from her point of view, gave the garden look neglected, then ordered the flogging of the eunuchs, gardeners, and sometimes behead. She was fifty-five years, and her neustraivala solitary life in the country palace, so she amused
such a bloodthirsty way.
Qi Xi hoped to rule the country by the emperor, who chose. But between aunt and nephew formed deep chasm. He was a kind, educated and progressive man who tried to bring China out of isolation, for which clung Qi Xi. Her terrified of aliens who are allowed nephew live in a country. All of them she suspected of intending to turn China into a colony. Once in 1874, Japan seized the islands Liuchiu, China has threatened war on. With negotiations military clash averted. But in 1894, when the Japanese attempted to seize Korea, the Chinese emperor moved into the battle Navy. However, the fleet turned out to be not just weak, but degraded. The money allocated for the upgrade, has been spent on equipping the palace Qi Xi. When the emperor was interrogated by the perpetrator of this venture, he replied: "Even if this money were spent on the fleet, the Japanese are still routed to us. And so the Empress appeared beautiful summer palace! "
The war with Japan was short and became a disaster for China. In 1898, when the country was trying to recover from a humiliating defeat around Qi Xi are grouped people who also hated and feared foreign threats to China from their side. Frequent visits to these people, the summer palace of Qi Xi were viewed as a conspiracy against them -
Guang Xu was aware that without the support of his aunt would be difficult to rule the country. But he also knew that she would never accept the reforms that he would like to. The emperor decided to hide his aunt under lock and thus get rid of her guardianship. By chance his plans became known to approximate the Empress. The idea of young -
peratora was doomed to failure. When Qi Xi learned of plans of her nephew, her face turned into a cold mask, only the fury in his eyes betrayed the true intentions of the cruel mistress.
Qi Xi made his nephew, Emperor of China, to abdicate. His personal servants were beheaded. Qi Xi watched flogging, sipping jasmine tea. Emperor was imprisoned in one of the lake's islands. He lived in poverty and seclusion under the protection of the eunuchs. Many courtiers were convinced that fate awaits him Tun Kyi, and his wife, but Qi Xi retained nephew lives. Perhaps the protests from a number of foreign diplomats in Beijing forced the Empress to repent. After the ex-Emperor Guang Xu spent in prison for a year, he was allowed to live under house arrest in a country mansion.
Banishment "foreign devils"
Six members of the imperial conspirators were arrested and executed. Then Qi Xi switched to foreign missionaries. Across China, she saw the insidious presence of strangers, preparing the invasion of the country of the enemy. November 21, 1899, after the brutal murder of several missionaries, she issued a decree that left no doubt - she was unwilling to tolerate "foreign devils" in his country. The decree was sent to all provinces. It said: "Never the word" peace "does not sound from the mouth of the rulers of the country, even for a moment it does not dwell in their hearts. Let us put aside all thought of peace, let us not succumb to diplomatic tricks. Let each of us will make every effort to protect their home and ancestral graves on the dirty hands of strangers. Will bring those words to each and every one of our possessions ". This decree became the banner of many Chinese conservatives who fought for the preservation of national traditions and united in a secret society called the "Fist in the name of justice and reconciliation". Its members were called "Boxers" for the skill in the art of war. Fanatical patriots, they supported the monarchy and feared the destructive influence of foreigners on Chinese society.
When in 1900 broke "Boxer Rebellion", the government supported its. The first victim was a British missionary. Hostility towards foreigners in China was felt everywhere, and everywhere the rebels to secure the support. Transmission lines were cut, railway tracks blown up, foreign-owned factories burned. Qi Xi led cunning game. She pretended that protects aliens, sending troops against the rebels, but at the same time, the army commanders promised a great reward "for the ears of each of the dead alien."
Soon the Empress gave up a double play. She ordered Chinese troops joined the rebels, and all the foreign missions have been under siege. They murdered so many, and often, that at times were unable to remove the corpses. As Beijing began to spread infectious diseases. When the foreign ministers of several countries appealed to the emperor of China to intervene, Qi Xi cried: "How dare they doubt my
. power - let's destroy them! "foreign powers sent troops to rescue its citizens, are facing a mortal threat.
. August 14 to Qi Xi hurried a messenger to warn her: "foreign devils come!" The Empress was forced to flee
. When she left the palace, approached it concubine of the deposed emperor. She rushed to the feet of Qi Xi, and begged to let the emperor to live in the palace. Qi Xi ordered eunuchs: "Throw this jade in the well, let it die as a warning to all disobedient". The unfortunate thrown into a deep well, where she found her death.
After the expulsion from Beijing Empress Qi Xi was forced to abandon the usual luxury. Food it was scarce, the power it lost. In a country ruled by chaos and violence. But then the "Boxer Rebellion" was crushed by the allied forces, and Qi Xi allowed to return to Beijing after the signing of peace accords. Already mentioned, Charlotte Holden wrote that it was a time of extreme hypocrisy Qi Xi. "Any way it wanted to protect themselves from the Allied powers attempt to deprive it of power. She realized that this must change the image, and its policy to provide a new light. The high point of hypocrisy has become available to withdraw from the archives of a dynasty all "probokserskie" decrees and edicts.
In the last years of life Qi Xi has witnessed reforms initiated in China under the influence of the West. She also was forced to give posthumous honors executed it as the emperor's ministers and even the unfortunate concubine, mercilessly thrown into the well.
Summer of 1907, Qi Xi suffered a stroke and her health deteriorated sharply. Health emperor also deteriorated. Despite the fact that he had not ruled, Guang Xu retained respect for the people and received the right to live in the palace.
On the morning of November 14, 1908 the Emperor died. It was obvious symptoms of poisoning. Of course, his doctor was unable to determine the cause of death. Suspicion fell on Qi Xi. It is likely that she secretly through the chamberlain, the emperor gave small doses of venom over a long period. Empress Qi Xi nephew survived only 24 hours. When it oc -
talos multimillion condition - irrefutable evidence of the predatory nature of the power of the Empress-Dragon. She left an old, proud Manchu dynasty in a sorry state and missed a real opportunity in time to open up China to new ideas, to turn frozen in its development patriarchal country on the path of progress and prosperity.
. Source: Encyclopedia of "Crimes of the Century"
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