Pol Pot( bloody dictator of Cambodia, the leader of the 'Khmer Rouge')
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Biography Pol Pot
A nation with its traditions of ancient culture and the veneration of faith was severely disfigured by a Marxist fanatic. Pol Pot during the silent acquiescence of the whole world has turned the country into a flourishing enormous cemetery.
Imagine that came to power a government that announces a ban on money. And not just for money: banned commerce, industry, banks - everything that brings wealth. The new government issued a decree announcing that the company is once again becoming agrarian what it was in the Middle Ages. Residents of cities and towns forcibly resettled in the countryside, where they will deal exclusively with peasant labor. But the family can not live together: children should not fall under the influence of bourgeois ideas "of their parents. Therefore, children are removed and brought up in a spirit of loyalty to the new regime. No books to adulthood. Books are no longer needed, so they burn, and children from the age of seven working on the state of the Khmer Rouge.
For the new agrarian class set vosemnadtsatichasovoy working day, hard work combined with a "reeducation" in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism under the leadership of new owners. Dissidents who show sympathy for the old order, have the right to life. To be the extermination of the intelligentsia, . teacher, . the higher education professoriate, . all literate people, . because they can read materials, . hostile to the ideas of Marxism-Leninism, . and distribute seditious ideology among workers, . to reeducate the field of peasant,
. Clergy, politicians of all stripes, except for sharing the views of the ruling party, people, nazhivshie state when the former authorities, no longer needed - they also destroyed. Minimized trade and telephone, destroyed temples, canceled bikes, birthdays, weddings, anniversaries, holidays, love and kindness. In the best case - labor in order to "re-education", otherwise - torture, torment, degradation, in the worst case - the death.
This nightmare scenario - not sophisticated fruit inflamed imagination of science fiction writer. This embodiment of horrific realities of life in Cambodia, where the bloody dictator Pol Pot turned back the course of time, destroying the civilization in an attempt to translate his twisted vision of a classless society. His "killing fields" were covered with the corpses of those who do not fit into the framework of the new world, formed by him and his murderous henchmen. During the reign of Pol Pot regime in Cambodia killed about three million people - as many unfortunate victims disappeared in the gas chambers in Nazi death factory Auschwitz during the Second World War. Life under Pol Pot was unbearable, and as a result of the tragedy on the ground of this ancient country in Southeast Asia and its long-suffering people of Cambodia, has invented a new creepy name - Country of walking dead.
Tragedy of Cambodia - is a consequence of the Vietnam War first broke out on the ruins of French colonialism, and then grew into a conflict with the Americans. On the battlefield were killed fifty-three thousand Cambodians. From 1969 to 1973, U.S. bombers B-52 by "carpet" bombing dropped on this tiny country and many tons of explosives, how many were dropped on Germany in the last two years of the Second World War. Vietnamese soldiers - Vietcong - used the impenetrable jungle of the neighboring country for the device of military camps and bases in the course of operations against the Americans. These strong points and was bombing by U.S. planes.
Prince Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodia's ruler and heir to her religious and cultural traditions, renounced the royal title for ten years before the Vietnam War, but remained head of state. He tried to lead the country on the path of neutrality, balancing between the warring nations and conflicting ideologies. Sihanouk became king of Cambodia - French protectorate - in 1941, but in 1955 abdicated. But then, after free elections, returned to the leadership of the country as head of state.
During the escalation of the Vietnam War from 1966 to 1969, Sihanouk was in favor of political leadership in Washington that did not take decisive measures against the smuggling of weapons and the establishment of camps of Vietnamese guerrillas in the jungles of Cambodia. But he was also very gentle in his criticism of punitive air raids conducted by the U.S..
March 18, 1970, when Sihanouk was in Moscow, his Prime Minister, General Lon Nol, with the support of the White House made a coup by bringing back its old name of Cambodia Khmer. The United States recognized the Khmer Republic, but a month later carried out the invasion of her. Sihanouk was in exile in Beijing. Here, the ex-king has chosen an alliance with the devil.
About Pol Pot little is known. This is a man with the appearance of handsome old man and the heart of the bloody tyrant. It is with this monster and joined Sihanouk. Together with the leader of the Khmer Rouge have vowed to merge their forces together for a common goal - the defeat of American troops.
Pol Pot, who grew up in a peasant family in the Cambodian province of Kompong Thom and received primary education in a Buddhist monastery, two years was a monk. In the fifties, he studied electronics in Paris and, like many students of that time, was involved in the leftist movement. Here, Pol Pot heard it - still do not know whether they meet - on another student, Khieu Samphan, whose controversial, but stirring the imagination of the plans "agrarian revolution" fueled their great ambitions of the Pol Pot
. In theory Samphan, . Cambodia, . to achieve progress, . was reversed, . repudiate capitalist exploitation, . zhiruyuschih Chiefs, . fostered by the French colonial rulers, . abandon devalued bourgeois values and ideals,
. Perverse theory Samphan stated that the people must live in the fields, and all the temptations of modern life should be destroyed. If Pol Pot at the time, say, hit by a car, this theory may well have died out in coffee shops and bars, not stepping outside of Paris boulevards. But she was destined to be embodied in the monstrous reality.
From 1970 to 1975, "Revolutionary Army" of Pol Pot turned Cambodia into a powerful force, controlling vast areas of agricultural. April 17, 1975 the dictator's dream of power become a reality: his troops, marching under the red flag, entered the capital of Cambodia, Phnom Penh. A few hours after the coup, Pol Pot, convened a special meeting of his new cabinet, and announced that the country would henceforth be known as Kampuchea. Dictator outlined a bold plan to build a new society, and stated that its implementation will take only a few days. Pol Pot declared the evacuation of all cities under the leadership of newly fledged regional and zonal leaders, ordered the closure of all markets, to destroy the church and disperse all the religious communities. Educated abroad, he had a hatred for the educated people and ordered the execution of all teachers, professors and even kindergarten.
Was destined to die the first senior cabinet ministers and functionaries Lon Nol regime. Behind them followed the officer corps of the old army. All were buried in mass graves. At the same time doctors were killed because of their "education". Destroyed all the religious communities - they are considered "reactionary". Then began the evacuation of towns and villages.
The implementation of the perverted dreams of Pol Pot - turn back the clock and force his people to live in a Marxist agrarian society - helped by his deputy Ieng Sary. In its policy the destruction of Pol Pot used the term "clean out of sight". "Get out" - destroyed thousands and thousands of men and women, the elderly and infants.
Buddhist temples desecrated or turned into soldiers' brothels, and even just in slaughterhouse. As a result of the terror of the sixty thousand monks in the ruined temples and sacred monastery returned only three thousand.
Decree of Pol Pot virtually eradicated ethnic minorities. Using Vietnamese, Thai and Chinese capital offense. Was proclaimed purely Cambodian society. Forced eradication of ethnic groups particularly hard hit by the nation vat. Their ancestors - came from the current Vietnam - was inhabited by the ancient Kingdom of Champa. Chany migrated to Cambodia in the XVIII century and were engaged in fishing on the shores of Cambodia's rivers and lakes. They are followers of Islam and were the most significant ethnic group in modern Cambodia, while maintaining the purity of their language, national cuisine, clothing, hairstyles, religious and ritual traditions.
Young zealots from the Khmer Rouge as the locusts attacked the tanks. Burned their settlements, the inhabitants driven out into the swamps, swarming mosquitoes. People are forced to eat pork, which strictly prohibits religion, clergy ruthlessly destroyed. In providing the least resistance wiped out entire communities, and the corpses were dumped in large pits and covered with lime. Of the two hundred thousand tanks survived less than half.
Those who survived the beginning of a campaign of terror in the future to realize that instant death would be better than the torments of hell under the new regime.
According to Pol Pot, the older generation was spoiled by the feudal and bourgeois ideas, infected with "sympathies" to the Western democracies, which he declared alien to the national way of life. Urban population were driven from their homes to labor camps, where hundreds of thousands of people were martyred back-breaking labor.
People are destroyed even attempting to speak French - the greatest crime in the eyes of the Khmer Rouge, as it was considered a manifestation of nostalgia for the colonial past of the country
. In large camps with no facilities, . except straw mats as bedding for sleeping and a bowl of rice at the end of the day, . in, . who do not would envy even the Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War, . worked traders, . teacher, . Entrepreneurs, . surviving only because, . that they managed to hide their profession, . as well as thousands of other citizens,
These camps were organized in such a way that, through "natural selection" to get rid of the old and the sick, pregnant women and young children.
People died by the hundreds and thousands from disease, hunger and exhaustion, under the batons of cruel overseers.
Without medical care, except for traditional methods of herbal remedies, life prisoners of these camps was woefully short.
At dawn, people systems shipped in malarial swamps, where they worked twelve hours a day clearing the jungle in an unsuccessful attempt to win them new arable land. At sunset, again, systems, driven by the bayonets of guards, people returned to camp to his bowl of rice gruel and a piece of liquid dried fish. Then, . despite the terrible fatigue, . they still had to survive the political studies of Marxist ideology, . which are identified and punished incorrigible "bourgeois elements", . the rest, . like parrots, . all repeated phrases about the joys of life in the new state,
. Every ten working days to rely long-awaited day off, which was planned to twelve o'clock the ideological lessons. The wives lived separately from their husbands. Their children began to work with the age of seven or surrendered to the childless party functionaries, who has raised them fanatical "revolutionary fighters".
From time to time in the town squares arranged huge bonfires of books. These fires were driven crowds of unhappy tortured people who were forced to chant the chorus parrot, while the flames devoured the masterpieces of world civilization. To organize the lessons of hate "when people were flogged in front of portraits of the leaders of the whip of the old regime. It was a sinister world of horror and despair.
Pol Pot severed diplomatic relations in all countries, not running a mail and telephone communications, entry and exit from it have been banned. The Cambodian people turned out to be isolated from the whole world.
To strengthen the fight against the real and imaginary enemies of Pol Pot in their prison camps organized a sophisticated system of torture and executions. As during the Spanish Inquisition, the dictator and his cronies started from the premise that those who got in the damned place, were guilty and they had only to plead guilty. To convince his followers of the need for harsh measures to achieve "national renaissance", is attached to torture of particular political importance.
Documents seized after the overthrow of Pol Pot, indicate that the officers Khmer security services, trained by Chinese instructors, guided in its activities brutal ideologicalized principles. "Guidelines for interrogation S-21" - one of the documents, and later transferred to the UN - says: "The purpose of torture is to obtain an adequate response to them by the interrogation. Torture is not for entertainment. The pain should cause both to cause a quick response. Another aim is psychological breakdown and loss of faith questioned. When torture should not assume their own anger or self-satisfaction. Beating should continue wearing both to intimidate him, but did not score until the death. Before you commit, to investigate the health of the person questioned and to view the instruments of torture. Do not try to necessarily kill questioned. During the interrogation of the main ones are political considerations, the infliction of pain again. Therefore you should never forget that you are doing political work. Even during the interrogation should constantly keep agitatsionnopropagandistskuyu work. At the same time to avoid indecision and hesitation in the torture, when you can get from the enemy's responses to our questions. Must be remembered that indecision could slow down our work. In other words, in the agitation and educational work of this kind must show determination, perseverance, categorical. We must begin to torture without explaining the reasons or motives. Only then the enemy will be crushed ".
Among the many sophisticated methods of torture resorted to by the executioners from among the Khmer Rouge, the most notorious were the favorite Chinese water torture, crucifixion, suffocation plastic bags. Project S-21, which gave the name of the document, was the most notorious detention camps throughout Cambodia. He was on the north-east. There were tortured at least thirty thousand victims of the regime. Only seven survived, and even then only because the administrative skills of the prisoners were their employers need to control this terrible institution.
But torture was not only an instrument of intimidation and already frightened population. We know many cases where the guards caught the prisoners in the camps, brought to despair by hunger, for eating their dead comrades in misfortune. The penalty for this was a terrible death. Perpetrators buried up to their necks in the ground and left to a slow death from hunger and thirst, and their still living flesh of the tortured ants and other animals. Then the victim's head was cut off and displayed on stakes around the settlement. On his neck hung a sign: "I - a betrayer of the revolution!".
Dith Pran, the Cambodian interpreter of American journalist Sydney Schoenberg, survived the horrors of the Pol Pot. Nonhuman test through which he had to undergo, are documented in the movie "Field of Death", in which the whole world with the shocking nakedness for the first time brought the suffering of the Cambodian people. Poignant story about the journey of Prana civilized childhood in the death camp plunged into the horror of spectators.
"In my prayers, - told Pran, - I asked God to spare me from the unbearable suffering that I was forced to endure. But some of my relatives managed to flee and take refuge in America. For their sake, I continued to live, but it was not life but a nightmare ".
Prana lucky to survive in this bloody nightmare of Asian and connect with his family in San Francisco in 1979. But in remote parts of the devastated country, which was struck a terrible tragedy that has survived the mass graves of nameless victims, over which a mute reproach rise mounds of human skulls.
In the end, through military power, rather than morality and law, managed to stop the carnage and restore the ravaged land of at least semblance of common sense. Be commended Britain, speaking in 1978 against human rights violations following reports of rampant terror in Cambodia through intermediaries in Thailand, but this protest was ignored. Britain issued a statement to the UN Commission on Human Rights, but the representative of the Khmer Rouge hysterically retorted: "The British imperialists have no right to talk about human rights. The whole world is well known for their barbaric nature. The leaders of Britain wallow in luxury, while the proletariat is only entitled to unemployment, disease and prostitution ".
In December 1978 Vietnamese troops, for many years in conflict with the Khmer Rouge because of the disputed border areas, by several infantry divisions backed by tanks entered the territory of Cambodia,. The country has come in such a decline, because of the lack of telephone communications had to be brought combat reports on bicycles.
In early 1979 the Vietnamese took Phnom Penh. A few hours before Pol Pot left deserted capital on a white armored "Mercedes". Bloody dictator, hurried to his Chinese hosts, to grant him asylum, but did not support him in the fight against the heavily armed Vietcong.
When the world became aware of the horrors of the Khmer Rouge regime, "and the devastation that had prevailed in the country, Cambodia massively rushed aid. The Khmer Rouge, as at the time the Nazis were very pedantic to register their crimes. The investigation revealed Journals, . in which every detail the recorded executions and torture, . hundreds of albums with photos of those sentenced to death, . including the wives and children of intellectuals, . liquidated in the early stages of terror, . detailed documentation of the notorious "killing fields",
. These fields, conceived as the basis for employment of Utopia, a country with no money and needs, in fact, proved to be graves of the day of burial of people crushed by the cruel yoke of tyranny.
Pol Pot, who seemed to have gone into oblivion, recently re-emerged on the political horizon as a force that claims to power in that troubled country. Like all tyrants, he argues that his subordinates made mistakes that he met resistance on all fronts, and the dead were "enemies of the state". After returning to Cambodia in 1981, at a secret meeting among his old friends at the border with Thailand, he said that he was too trusting: "My policy was correct. Too zealous regional commanders and leaders in the field distorted my orders. Accusations of mass killings - a vile lie. If we really destroying people in such numbers, people have long ceased to exist ".
"Misunderstanding" at a cost of three million lives, almost a quarter of the population - are too innocent word for what has been done on behalf of Pol Pot and his orders. But, following the well-known Nazi principle - the monstrous lie, the more people can believe it - Pol Pot is still eager to seize power and hoped to gather strength in rural areas, which in his opinion, still loyal to him.
He again became a major political figure and awaits a convenient opportunity to appear again in the country as the angel of death, seeking revenge and the completion of previously initiated the case - its "great agrarian revolution".
In international circles, a growing movement for the recognition of the massacres perpetrated in Cambodia, a crime against humanity - like Hitler's genocide against the Jews. In New York, working Cambodian Documentation Center under the leadership of Ieng itself. As a former inmate of Nazi concentration camps Sim he Wiesenthal, . which for many years around the world gathered evidence against the Nazi war criminals, . Ieng Himself, . survivor of a terror campaign, . accumulates information about the atrocities of the criminals in their country,
. Here are his words: "Those, . who are most responsible for the Cambodian Genocide - Pol Pot regime Cabinet, . members of the Communist Party, . military leaders of the Khmer Rouge, . whose troops participated in massacres, . officials, . Superintendent of executions and administer the system of torture, . - Continue their activities in Cambodia,
. Hiding in the border areas, they are leading a guerrilla war, trying to return to power in Phnom Penh.
They have not been held accountable for their crimes to the international legal responsibility, and it is tragic, monstrous injustice.
We, the survivors, remember, as we are deprived families, as brutally killed our relatives and friends. We have witnessed how people were dying from exhaustion, unable to endure slave labor, and from inhuman living conditions, which have condemned the Cambodian people, the Khmer Rouge.
We have also seen how Pol Pot's soldiers destroy our Buddhist temples, out of classrooms in schools where our children learn, suppressed our culture and uprooting ethnic minorities. We find it hard to understand why the free, democratic state and the nation did nothing to punish the perpetrators. Is this problem does not cry out for justice? "
But a just solution to this issue is not today.
Photos of Pol Pot
|ilyich-ramiles-sanches for Pol Pot
|Do not dare to sling mud at the great figures of world revolution The time will come, we will establish the regime of Pol Pot WORLDWIDE capitalists will burn in the fire world revolution to such conditions, the deaths of several millions or even billions of fellows just need the inevitability,