Juan and Evita Peron( President and dictator of Argentina with his first wife (1946-1955, 1973-1974))
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Biography Juan and Evita Peron
Dictator Juan Peron and his wife Evita - a former nightclub singer - many years ruled by Argentina. Under the guise of good intentions, they robbed millions of people, led the country to the edge of bankruptcy. And all this was done ostensibly in the name of the Argentine people ".
It was a strange and seemingly incompatible couple: a singer with a dubious reputation and ambitious army colonel. But they have long determined the course of Latin American politics, and to this day the Argentines commemorate their bad word.
Musical Evdryu Weber's "Evita" was not the sole reason that Eva Duarte, the passion of the Argentine dictator, has become notorious. In a country where Peronism became almost a religion, Juan and Eviga were demi-gods who are worshiped and hated.
People without a conscience and principles, they shamelessly misappropriated millions from the national treasury, raising them to their personal accounts in a Swiss bank. During the Second World War, they supported the fascist movement in Europe, strangled the opposition press, persecuted progressive religious figures.
Peronism in fact turned out to be well-organized robbery of the State. Before coming to power of Peron's Argentina was one of the richest countries in the world. After his country has become bankrupt.
Juan Domingo Peron was born in 1895 in a poor immigrant family. He rose through the ranks thanks to the zeal and abilities. Outwardly charming, athletic man in his heart he was a coward and a scoundrel. Peron dreamed of a loud glory, and many of his absurd economic reforms were carried out for the sake of applause from the crowd.
Until 1943, when a military coup, Argentina was under the rule of President Ramon Castillo. Anti-government conspiracy led by army officers, united in a secret society of "Young Eagles". Among them was Colonel Peron. Ashifashistskaya position of President irritated the military, among whom were many officers of Italian origin, worshiped Mussolini.
During the coup Peron served in the military and was considered one of the most ardent pro-fascist-minded officers. The new authorities, he was appointed to high office in the Ministry of Labor, created by the military junta.
The labor movement in Argentina has traditionally controlled trade unions. Peron decided to merge the job in one paramilitary alliance, which would be dominated by totalitarian order, which he admired during a trip to Nazi Germany and fascist Italy.
Peron used all his charm to win over trade union leaders, to create a working image in the eyes of the "elder brother", which seeks to facilitate their economic and social situation.
A few months ago these same people he called the communist scum and dregs of society. But on the eve of the elections had to get a mandate from the people trust, and Peron was sure that flattery - the best way to get votes.
He made sure that the negotiations on wages between workers and employers passed through his office. Peron was profitable bribes from union bosses and business owners secretly diverted to his bank account in Switzerland.
Peron introduced paid holidays, surcharges for Christmas and other benefits. While the workers welcomed these short-term measures, businessmen complained of the loss of control levers, and the unions obediently followed the government policy. Both were victims of attempts to enter the regime of Juan Peron's military dictatorship, based on the support of the masses.
As in Europe crumbled dictatorships, which so delighted with the Argentine military in the country was spreading movement in defense of democracy. In August 1945, was lifted a state of emergency imposed during the war. The following month, on the streets of the Argentine capital was half a million demonstration. Citizens demanded respect for human rights. This frightened the government and sparked a wave of arrests. And when the war among themselves provoked controversy and the view of many of them coincided with the position of workers, Peron decided it was time to climb to the summit of power. He spoke on the radio, urging workers to take decisive action ". This bold, but demagogic appeal over arrest on charges of calling for civil unrest and the conclusion of the future president into custody.
When Peron was arrested, his mistress, Eva Duarte fiercely fought with the soldiers, shouting curses, while the colonel himself offered no resistance. Eva staged a rally in support of Peron, resorting to the help of trade unions, which he took care. Riots in the streets of Buenos Aires, lasted two days. In the end, the military gave way, and Peron was released. The political status of the disgraced Colonel rose as never.
Realizing that his dream of a neo-fascist workers 'militia will not come true, Juan Peron has resigned and acted as the leader of a new workers' party.
The first step towards the Peron dictatorship was the elimination of trade unions shoemaker and textile workers who refused to submit to totalitarian principles of the trade union movement.
Within six months from the rebellious leaders of the labor movement was over, and the defeated leaders expelled.
To get credibility in the upcoming presidential elections, Peron was needed as a victory over the Catholic hierarchy, especially when you consider that the Church has publicly denounced his relationship with Eva Duarte. He divorced his wife, hoping to marry Evita, who was younger than his 24 years. In 1945, Peron finally managed to convince the church, which at that time did not recognize divorce, to make an exception for him and bless the marriage with Evita.
In 1946, Peron realized his dream in the presidential elections in Argentina. In the struggle for power, he enlisted the support of workers. The country was ready to accept a new leader. He came to power on a wave of high expectations and hopes. Rich in natural resources, Argentina has used the war that raged far from its borders, to strengthen its economy. Business flourished, and the banks have accumulated huge amounts of money.
"Undoubtedly, Peron extremely poorly managed system - wrote the British historian Ferns in his fundamental study" Argentina ". - How naughty child, he wanted to have everything. He has shown himself incapable of making choices and setting priorities, which are necessary for the functioning of any economic system. He urged the society to believe in a speedy and complete prosperity. But nobody could have imagined what awaits the country in reality ".
The materials for the study of Argentina's John Simpson and Jane Bennet said: "It was a peculiar form of philanthropy Peron. He made the working class to feel their dignity and their importance in the national life of Argentina. The problem was not to give power to the working class and to bribe him and hand over power Peron ".
Perverse ideas of socialism tied workers and employers to a totalitarian state, which openly trampled democracy. Peron spent huge sums of public money for the nationalization of dilapidated railways. He became a master of the promises that were never executed, the favorite of the workers who never received a position from the state. In an effort to bribe the social rank and file, PerцЁn established for them generous benefits. This later led Argentina's economic collapse, the consequences of which persist to this day.
By 1949, inflation has eaten peronovskie plans. Protested utterly impoverished workers. Peron responded harshly, arresting dissidents, persecuting the clergy. Was adopted draconian law that for insulting the president and government officials should have severe punishment. Newspapers, criticized PerцЁn and Evita were closed.
For example, the influential and the once popular "La Prensa" was turned into a shout tamed government unions.
Ewa in the years to actively withdraw money from businessmen and landowners, by investing heavily in what was called the largest in history "vzyatochnym" Fund. Was used to bribe influential persons and a widely-publicized charitable campaigns. Eva really helped to build schools and educate children, feed the hungry and opened shelters for homeless. However, the huge amount of money collected was distributed by people who answered only to her. Its emissaries traveled to all factories, shops, construction sites, to collect contributions, which demanded a new Cleopatra.
Enterprises, they have not made money voluntarily, immediately shut down as unprofitable.
According to experts, Evita stole from the fund 100 million dollars and placed them in secret accounts in Swiss banks.
Fund, which was created as a society, supported by voluntary contributions, soon began to resemble a mafia organization. Eva strongly demanded payment from each worker, who received a promotion, from each employer, who stated that he needed government support. Every possible source of funding was thoroughly "milked", so that the broadcast of recognition of the First Lady in the love of "ordinary people" were nothing more than a myth.
It was not gentle and graceful woman, as she tried to look around. "First Lady" confidently relied on the power of the army and police. Consumables it amounts have been directly linked to the interests and needs of the dictatorial regime.
More money, less love
Author of the book "Eva Peron" John Barnes said that after her death, investigators found $ 14 million in cash and jewelry, which she simply forgot. Undoubtedly, much of it was stolen from the so-called "fund of Eva Peron".
"Love people entertain me" - Evita flowed to reporters, while huge amounts of unchecked and unaccounted for money deposited into her bank account. Entire government agencies have worked almost round the clock to maintain the "fund" these invisible money. At the governmental level, the country's president bribed politicians, so they sent millions of dollars of public funds in its organization. So far, no one knows exactly how many Peron stole Argentina. But the sum of the hundreds of millions of dollars.
Eva was just as greedy as it is vain. Newspapers that have not paid adequate attention to its magnificent balls and distinguished guests, suddenly found that the paper stock and replenish their depleted nothing. Win cheap popularity among the lower social strata, it was never accepted in high society.
Revenge of the First Lady snobbish elites knew no bounds. Once she was well paid, a fish trader for the fact that it is situated near the famous aristocratic club in Buenos Aires and sold here during the hot summer. And when some union boss had been so careless with something to say that Evita would be better to dispose of the kitchen, than to meddle with politics, "first lady" has ordered the arrest of a freethinker, and instill in him respect for authority, an electric current.
Another "heretic" by the name of Victor Belardo was arrested because they said in a radio interview about his agreement to give all his savings to charity, provided that they are not absorbed by the "Fund Evita".
Peron accumulated many millions of income generated from import-export licenses. Entrepreneurs literally showered them with bribes to be able to trade with the outside world.
Eva was a consummate organizer of self. Once the wife of President invited the women and children from across the country, to young Argentines received from her gifts: they say, Eva for all children - her children. Police later had to break up the multitudes, and at least two mothers returned home without their children, killed in stampede.
In 1951, the political power of Juan and Evita shaken, but the slogan put forward by Peron and appeal to the workers: "Live now - pay later" - even provide them with support of Argentine society. However, the elections in 1951, when Peron invited to elect a vice-president of his wife, both were disappointed. Despite the fact that many still believed in the goodness Evita, it was nevertheless too. The idea that power-hungry beauty can officially become the second person in the state, shiver military, whose support cherished president. Did not suit this alignment of forces and workers. The walls started mocking slogan: "Long live Peron, a widower!" Other works "wall painting" Evita portrayed in the nude, striding, like Gulliver, through the mass of the Lilliputians. Juan Peron had yielded to pressure the church and the military, and his wife's name does not appear on the ballot.
Shortly before the next presidential elections, which Peron was afraid to lose, was another attempt of military coup, the dictator crushed. The victory in the October elections he was provided. Indeed, PerцЁn received 62 percent of the vote - far more than in 1946. People still believed in the promise of a totalitarian regime "bright future".
The following year the first national drama ended suddenly sad event: Evita died of cancer. She was only thirty-three years. On the eve of President's wife made a trip around the world, attracting the hearts and minds of the inhabitants of different continents to their country. Nevertheless, the untimely death prevented the fall in its popularity in the eyes of fellow. After retiring from the life, . Evita remained in the memory of their devastated admirers beautiful lady in furs and diamonds, . not power-loving wife of dictator, . which is not without its help deprived people of their wealth, . led the nation on the edge of bankruptcy, . forcing innocent victims to groan under torture in filthy jails,
Soon the economic situation in the country deteriorated sharply. King became naked in front of his former fans, forced to bear the burden of inflation and the growing terror of the secret police. Moreover, the Catholic Church - the traditional source of inspiration and philanthropy in the country - felt the deterioration of the situation, losing a place in society because of the "fund" Evigy Peron. University faculty reinforced semi-literate dropout who received the prestigious post of corrupt officials for taking bribes. Detachments of Peron's personal guards looted wealth of National Library and Museum of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires, where the unique exhibits moved into the home collection of dictator.
In 1955, the aircraft rebels, supported by the military, attacked the presidential palace. The bombs missed their target but killed hundreds of civilians. Armed gangs took to the streets, looting shops, offices and even churches. The army garrison in Cordoba rose against the President. PerцЁn hastily fled the country and on board the Paraguayan gunboat went into exile.
After the flight of the dictator Argentines were allowed to see how they actually lived Evita. For the general public portals opened its amazing palace.
"It was a spectacle that would have overshadowed the Aladdin's Cave" - wrote the correspondent of the Daily Express, once visited untold wealth of the deceased wife of Argentine ex-president. Glass shelf tier for tier reflect the brilliance exhibited treasures, which were estimated at two million pounds sterling. A little farther twinkled and flashed the diamonds the size of almost a pigeon's egg. The collar is encrusted with precious stones, was as thick as five centimeters.
I saw at least four dresses - all great style and all the insanely expensive. And experts estimate that Evita had so many pairs of shoes that they would be enough for four years. All jewelry, clothing and paintings, believed to be - is only part of what Peron and his wife purchased in less than ten years in power. The Government believes that most of the wealth they have flown to Switzerland. PerцЁn once said: "The only treasure that I ever gave my wife, it was a wedding ring".
These events, find them anywhere else in the world, and not in Latin America, and that would have ended. However, in 1973, after nearly two decades of exile, PerцЁn returned to power with his third wife. Because of the nostalgia for the good old days, which, incidentally, never been, people welcomed the man who made a fantastic career, playing with the workers. Many of them never realized that Peron played marked cards.
In 1974, aged Argentine dictator died, passing the reins of Isabel Peron, whom he married in sixty-five years. The scale of corruption, it has surpassed both - and her husband, and his previous wife. Arrested in 1976 after the dismissal from office, Isabelita was accused of stealing millions of dollars intended for charitable purposes. Accused of embezzling money and using state property for private gain, Isabelita was imprisoned and came out in 1981, after serving two-thirds of schedule.
Despite all this, the name of Peron still nostalgic for the Argentines, many of which are now routinely say that "strong" means "fair."
|graybarn1 for Juan and Evita Peron
|My comment: Short and sweet.MAS ESTIERCOL VACA.VIVA EVITA