Julius and Ethel Rosenberg( Nuclear spy)
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Biography Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
The world does not know the names of the couple to long Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were not exposed, and then executed in the electric chair as spies. With access to a strictly guarded secret Los Alamos, where at the end of the Second World War, was made the first atomic bomb, they gave her the secret Soviet intelligence service and paid for it with their lives.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were the children of Jewish immigrants who left Russia in search of better life. Both were born in New York. Becoming independent people, they decided to assist the homeland of their fathers, selling top-secret information to Soviet intelligence agents.
But there is another point of view. It is alleged that two Americans have themselves become victims of the communist conspiracy, hitting a skillfully nets.
However, experts believe that the sentence "atomic" spies, was and remains valid
. June 19, 1953 in the death row prison at Sing Sing in New York, an electric discharge of two thousand volts cut short the lives of people who, according to the majority of Americans out of the bottle the genie of the atomic and thus have launched an arms race
A lot of people thronged the streets in the hours preceding the execution of the Rosenbergs. Some denounced their crime, while others asked for their forgiveness. Perhaps the only argument in favor of those who considered them not guilty, was that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg looked extremely attractive. But this, according to counterintelligence, and made their exposure by allowing the agents to Moscow to enter the heart of the American atomic project code-named "Manhattan".
There was nothing that would have allocated the couple from among citizens. Ethel, whose maiden name was Gringlas, after graduating from high school in New York, worked in various secretarial positions.
Julius, a graduate of the same school, hoping to become a rabbi once received a religious education. He studied Judaism for a year before they gave preference to the profession electrical engineer. Julius Ethel knew from school, but when I met her later, long-standing friendship grew into love. In 1939, when over Europe have gathered storm clouds of war, they were married. The young husband nearly 21 years.
Proponents of socialism
After a year of probation Julius was promoted to engineer an army communications. In spring 1942 the couple, who lived before in cramped conditions, had withdrawn a separate apartment in the new house on the eastern edge of Manhattan. Life in this time of Julius Rosenberg was a relatively quiet. His work did not require risky trips abroad, in the throes of a military conflagration Europe. Of course, the family had financial difficulties, but who have not experienced in years of war! Grew up two sons, Michael and Robert, and young parents chayali in their souls.
But soon the head of the family appeared some secrets. A few years ago under the influence of Russian military success, which he perceived as evidence of strength and fairness of the new regime in Russia, Julius joined the Communist Party. In 1945, when his secret membership in "subversive" organizations have been exposed by the FBI, Julius dismissed from the army. America at that time had not yet reached the peak of anti-communist hysteria, but to be "red" is then meant to lose credibility in the eyes of American authorities.
Jobless, Julius with his wife's brothers, David and Bernard started his own business.
David Gringlas was one of the major artists to sell the idea of strategic secrets to the Soviet Union, U.S.. During the war he worked at Los Alamos Research Center in the top-secret facility, where the famous physicist Robert Oppenheimer and his colleagues created the first atomic bomb. This ground became the center of the greatest and at the same time the most devastating scientific achievements of our time. David Gringlas systematically stole "atomic" secrets for sale by Russian media. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg voluntarily acceded to the plot.
But the FBI has argued the opposite: it is recruited by David Rosenberg, and supported it the idea of serving the ideals of world socialism generous cash handouts. He meekly agreed to use his official position to deliver the agents of the Kremlin copies of secret documents. When eventually Gringdas appeared before the court, he slandered her sister, trying to save his own head.
It is on the Rosenbergs was responsible for all the espionage operation, which was disclosed in 1950 after the arrest of 39-year-old Harry Gold, a chemist who worked in a Philadelphia hospital. He was an accomplice of the German-emigre scientist Klaus Fuchs, who served time behind bars in Britain after he was found guilty of selling nuclear secrets to Moscow.
Fuchs, a brilliant physicist who had fled to England from his native Germany when Hitler came to power, had access to top secret materials related to the creation of the atomic bomb. For espionage, he was sentenced to fourteen years in prison. Fuchs admitted that the use of Gold as a courier, but to find out whether Fuchs had any contact with the Rosenbergs, and failed.
Fuchs was convicted of espionage in wartime, risking a death sentence, despite the fact that the war had already ended. Gold, who was an agent of Fuchs in the Americas, was a pitiful and cowardly man. His confession that David Gringlas, who worked on an important subject in Los Alamos, delivered to him the secrets of atomic weapons throughout the war, it was like an explosion of the atomic bomb itself.
FBI dossier contained a detailed description of the espionage activities Gringlasa. He had free access to classified materials containing information about the detonators that would exempt plutonium and uranium to create a critical mass. Under intense pressure from his agents seized Gringlas betrayed her husband's sister. Shortly thereafter, followed the arrest of the Rosenbergs.
The investigators found out that in early 1945, Rosenberg sent Gringlasu half jagged lid of the box from the jelly. The other half was given to him Golda in Albuquerque. This was the password to Golda continuously receive and transmit agents of the Soviet top-secret material.
Rosenberg actively looking for ways to collusion with the Soviet government was not thinking about the damage to their own country. The investigation revealed that he was always invited by the Soviet secret agents of their services, interested in what could be done "directly for Russia".
Couple Rosenbergs denied this. They stated that fraud had been embroiled in a nightmare, which had no relation.
He was later arrested another member of the spy organization - Morton Sobel, a family friend of the Rosenbergs. Once he studied with Julius. He was charged in the transfer of Rosenberg's latest plans for the development of radar for U.S. ships and submarines.
The parade of witnesses
The whole weight of the arguments of the U.S. government was moved to the Gold and the other arrested spies on Rosenberg. The records the FBI, they were the architects of espionage organization. They established contacts with Soviet diplomats and agents. J. Edgar Hoover claimed that U.S. scientists were convinced that Russia will not be able to invent the atomic bomb up to the sixties. But thanks to the secrets allocated Rosenberg, Russian tested its first nuclear device in 1949 that once carried them to the nuclear age, and laid the foundations of the Cold War.
State Prosecutor Irving Seypol no one left no doubt that he intends to seek the death penalty for spies. He said: "We will prove, . that Rosenberg had set in motion with the help of Soviet agents, an elaborate program, . with which they managed to steal the unique weapon, . if you, . the key to the survival of the nation and a means of maintaining peace throughout the world - the atomic bomb,
. Belief in communism led them to the Soviet espionage organization ".
The court, which lasted fifteen days, became a sensation not only in America - to him was the focus of attention around the world. All new and new evidence conclusively proving that the family of Rosenberg sold his soul to the hammer and sickle. One of the witnesses showed that Julius Rosenberg was trying to ask him, does he work in the Ministry of the Navy in Washington, access to nuclear secrets. A graduate of Columbia University, Elizabeth Bentley told how she was covered by deception in a web of espionage through ruin her love affairs with Soviet agents. Contact between Rosenberg and Moscow was, as was evident from the testimony of this witness, an unusually strong.
Undoubtedly, the testimony of David Gringlasa largely determined the fate of Ethel and Julius. Spy admitted that he had access to the strictest secrecy, which passed to his sister and brother-in. "They prefer Russian socialism in our government system," - he said.
Gringlas showed that convey information about the staff in protected complex, later - about the explosives used for the introduction of the detonator, and the very mechanism of the device.
Gringlas passed to Soviet agents to technical information and diagrams. And in one package, for which he received $ 200, contained a reprint dvenadtsatistranichnoy instructions explaining the mechanism of action bomb.
Fuchs's arrest put an end to espionage operations. In his testimony Gringlas recalled that Julius once visited him and asked: "Do you remember that a man who met you in Albuquerque?" In all likelihood, he will soon be arrested and this may withdraw at you ". Gringlas said that Julius had offered him money to leave, and later returned with four thousand dollars for this purpose. But it was too late.
Soviet agent in America, Harry Gold also gave serious indications. He said that he and Rosenberg supervised the Soviet vice consul in New York, Anatoly Yakovlev. Gold admitted: "Yakovlev reported that the information I conveyed to him, immediately went to the Soviet Union. He assured that the information Gringlasa was extremely important and valuable ". In 1946, Yakovlev quickly left America.
Julius Rosenberg at all justified and unjustified accusations of espionage replied tersely: "I did not do". Asked whether he was a member of the Communist Party, Julius refused to answer, although he admitted that the sympathy of the Soviet political system, "as it has done much to improve the situation of the poor". Ethel also denied suggestions in its accusations.
In closing remarks, the public prosecutor was more eloquent than the accused of spying. He said: "This is one of the most important cases ever submitted to the jury in our country. Prove that the conspirators had stolen from the U.S. the most important scientific secrets that ever knew mankind, and handed them over to the Soviet Union. Device description of the atomic bomb by David Gringlasom Ethel Rosenberg were printed with the same ease, . with which it performed its usual work: the village at the typewriter and struck the keys, blow by blow - against his country in the interests of the country of the Soviets',
Rosenberg was threatening situation. The evidence of guilt of the couple were undeniable.
March 29, 1951 a judge pronounced guilty, and a week later - the final sentence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: the death penalty. Judge Irving Kaufman, said: "The idea, . that the citizens of our country contribute to the destruction of the United States the most destructive weapons, . known person, . is so shocking, . I can not find words, . to describe this heinous crime ",
The triumph of justice or an error Themis?
On the night of June 19, 1953, after two years awaiting execution, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in turn died at the same electric chair.
The courage with which the couple went to their death, their love for each other and to the two of them teenage sons, a terrible procedure penalty - all approved international public opinion that was made a tragic miscarriage of justice.
Spouses Rosenberg demonstrated an idealistic belief that the country of the Soviets is a hope for all mankind. They were sincere in their naive delusion that has not been able to dispel any horrors of Stalinism, at that time already well known in the West, nor a public renunciation of the USSR from any involvement in "to the Rosenbergs'.
This association is not officially recognized until now. And today, some consider the executed "atom spies, criminals, and others - heroes. But the perennial confrontation between the two largest nuclear powers still not led to a third world war, the specter that hovered over the world during the life of the Rosenbergs. This fact probably indicates that history, contrary to the American Themis, made Rosenbergs acquittal.