Skoropadsky Pavel Petrovich( When the Provisional Government has recognized the legitimacy of the Central Rada (2 (15) July 1917), proceeded to Ukrainianization his body, known as '1 st Ukrainian '. October 6th Congress)
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Biography Skoropadsky Pavel Petrovich
KOROPADSKY, Pavel Petrovich (1873-1945), the Ukrainian military and state leader, hetman of Ukraine. Born 3 (15) May 1873 in Wiesbaden (Germany) in a noble family. Father PI Skoropadsky - a big landowner Chernigov and Poltava provinces, the colonel of the Russian army, a direct descendant of Ukrainian hetman Ivan Skoropadsky (1708-1722). Mother MA Miklashevskaya - from an old Cossack family. After graduating from the Petersburg Corps of Pages was promoted to ensign and was appointed squadron commander of the Cavalry Regiment (1893). In 1895 he became the regimental adjutant. In 1897 promoted to lieutenants. In 1898 he married AP Durnovo, daughter of the Moscow governor-general. Participated in the Russian-Japanese war: commander of a hundred 2-th Chita Cossack regiment, then served as adjutant to the commander in chief by Russian troops in the Far East, General NP Linevich. He was awarded the St. George Arms and the Order of St.. Vladimir. In December 1905, promoted to colonel and appointed aide-de-camp of Emperor Nicholas II. In 1910-1911 commanded the 20 th regiment of dragoons of Finland. In 1911 was appointed commander of the Life Guards Regiment. In 1912 promoted to Major-General. During World War II commanded the 1 st Brigade 1 st Guards Cavalry Division, then was appointed commander of the 3rd, and later 5 th Guards Cavalry Division. In 1916 he became lieutenant-general. In January 1917 received by the beginning of the 34 th Army Corps.
. After the February Revolution, . giving rise to the autonomist movement in Ukraine, . was in a difficult position - in obedience to the Provisional Government and the High Command, . was forced to reckon with the Central Rada (body of All-Ukrainian authorities, . established local and national parties (4) 17 March 1917), . because his body was on the territory under its control,
. When the Provisional Government has recognized the legitimacy of the Central Rada (2 (15) July 1917), proceeded to Ukrainianization his body, known as '1 st Ukrainian '. October 6th Congress of the Free Cossacks in Chigirin proclaimed its leader.
October coup met with hostility. Subordinated to the Central Rada and was appointed commander of the armed forces proclaimed 7 (20) November the Ukrainian People's Republic. C 3 (16) December led successful military operations against the Bolsheviks were under the influence of parts of South-Western Front, and detachments of the Ukrainian Soviet government, . settled in Kharkov; unable to prevent the establishment of Soviet power in most of the territory of Ukraine,
. December 29 (January 11) in protest against the decision to dissolve the Rada of the 1 st Ukrainian corps resigned.
The capture of Kiev by the Bolsheviks on January 26 (8 February) 1918 forced him to go underground. After the entry of German troops in Kiev and restore the authority of the Central Rada headed officer and Cossack organizations 'Ukrainian folk Gromada'. April 29, 1918 at the Congress 'farmers' (large landowners) proclaimed 'All hetman of Ukraine', on the orders of the commander of Germanic troops of Field Marshal G. Eichhorn Central Rada was dissolved. Ukrainian People's Republic ceased to exist, replaced by Ukrainian state headed by Hetman.
. Once in power, . PP Skoropadsky directed its efforts at creating an independent Ukrainian state with all the necessary attributes: a law was passed Ukrainian citizenship, . approved by the state emblem, . introduced monetary system, . formation of a number of national divisions, . proclaimed autocephaly Ukrainian Church, . organized by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, . opened two state universities,
. His domestic policy was based on the revival of historical Ukrainian tradition (hetman as a political form, . constitution of the Cossacks as a class) and the restoration of pre-revolutionary order (land ownership, . freedom of trade and private enterprise),
. Ukrainization, however, does not mean a nationalist (anti-Russian) course. Regime supported organizations of the Russian officers, although it prevented the establishment of large military formations. His were the mainstay of right-wing conservative circles. Getman had purged the state apparatus from the representatives of democratic parties, repressed leftist nationalists (Ukrainian Socialist and Social-Democrats), carried out punitive expeditions against the peasants, seize their land. In foreign policy focuses on Germany and its allies, confirmed all previous agreements concluded by Ukraine, but nevertheless gained recognition from the Entente and the number of neutral countries. Contract with the nationalist government of Crimea, entered into a military alliance with the governments of the Don Cossacks and Kuban.
After the defeat of Germany and the beginning of the evacuation of German troops from Ukraine's attempt to rely on the Entente and White Movement. Abandon the slogan of an independent Ukraine, and expressed readiness to fight for the re-establishment of United Russia, together with the Volunteer and the armies of the Don. Began to evolve, Russian officers squads. However, the revolt, . raised against him in mid-November, the leaders of the Ukrainian National Union (VK Vinnichenko, . SV Petlura), . and successful offensive (with Germans neutrality) Petliura troops to Kiev led to the decomposition of the hetman's troops and the collapse of the Ukrainian State,
. December 14, 1918 Skoropadsky relinquish power and under the guise of a wounded German major left Kiev, leaving the city and its few defenders (five thousand white officers) to their fate.
In 1918-1945 he lived in Germany. Was the center of attraction monarchist wing of the Ukrainian emigration. During the Second World War actively collaborated with the Germans. In April 1945, escaped from the besieged Berlin in the south, but the road was hit by Allied air bombardment, and was mortally wounded. Died April 26 in hospital Metten (Bavaria).