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Manmohan Singh

( Indian Prime Minister in May 2004. Prior to that, since 1991, was finance minister from 1990 to 1991 - Adviser to the Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs, from 1985 to 1987 - Vice)

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Biography Manmohan Singh
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Manmohan Singh was born on 26 September (according to other sources - 4 February) 1932 in the Punjabi village of Gah, now in Pakistani territory in a Sikh family of merchant Gurmuha Singh (Gurmukh Singh) and Gursharan Kaur (Gursharan Kaur). Singh's family was very poor, over time, she moved to the Afghan Peshawar, where his father Manmohan got a job in the company, providing sales of fruit.

In March 1947, Singh passed the exams in the Punjab University in Chandigarh. The beginning of his studies at the university, however, prevented the partition of British India into India and Pakistan, accompanied by collisions of Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus. Family Singh was in the Punjabi city of Amritsar on the Indian side during the evacuation to India, Singh lost his father - and the family reunited only once in January 1948. In 1948, Singh has once again passed the exams in the Punjab University, it is later, he received a scholarship to study economics at Cambridge University. After graduating from Cambridge University in 1957, Singh, in accordance with the terms of scholarships for three years he taught at Punjab University. In 1960, Singh returned to Britain where he became a member of Nuffield College (Nuffield College) at Oxford University. In 1962, ibid thesis on the Indian economy. In 1964, Oxford published a monograph Singh, "Trends in Indian exports and the prospects for an independent path of development" (India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth).

. In the years 1966-1969 Singh during the three years he worked at UNCTAD (UN Conference on Trade and Development) in New York and then in 1969 returned to India, where two years he taught at the prestigious Delhi School of Economics (Delhi School of Economics) .

. After the elections of 1971, which won the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (Indira Gandhi), the head of its secretariat P.N
. Haksar (PN. Haksar) asked Singh to write the work "What to do with the victory" (What to do with the victory). After that, Singh worked for a year an economic adviser in the Ministry of Foreign Trade, and later because of disagreements with the boss went to the Ministry of Finance as Chief Economic Adviser, where he remained until 1976]. It is known that during this period, he tried to defend the greatest possible economic independence, including the International Monetary Fund. In 1976-1980 Singh was the Director of the Reserve Bank of India and the Industrial Development Bank of India and also was the first Deputy Minister of Finance of India. Then in 1980-1982 Singh was a member of the Indian Commission of the joint committee of the Indo-Japanese Studies.

In 1982, Singh has led the Reserve Bank of India and remained in that post until 1985. Simultaneously, he served on the board of the International Monetary Fund and directed his Indian office. In 1985 he was chairman of the Indian Economic Association. In 1985-1987, Singh served as Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission at the same time it was called one of the main economic adviser to Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi (Rajiv Gandhi). In the 1987-1990 period Singh held the post of general secretary and special envoy of South Commission, an independent international organization, investigated the economies of developing countries and is located in Geneva. In 1987, he also mentioned in the press as President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi (Punjab-Haryana-Delhi Chamber of Commerce and Industry). In 1990-1991, Singh was an adviser to the Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs, and in 1991 spent three months as Chairman of the University Grants.

Economic Views Singh in the 1980's are described ambiguously. Soon after assuming the post of head of the Indian central bank Singh said the liberalization of loan policy. At the same time he maintained a loan from international funds, later noted that in mid-1980's he was one of the most influential advocates of foreign investment in India. But already in 1987, Singh stressed that foreign loans may be harmful to India because of the peculiarities of its economic culture.

. In June 1991, in the midst of economic crisis in India, Prime Minister Narasimha Rao (Narasimha Rao), invited Singh to his government as Minister of Finance
. Singh was the only minister at the time of the appointment of a non-member Congress. The fact that Singh went to the government, was associated in particular with India held talks on the new loan from the International Monetary Fund, and he was the first task called the curbing of inflation and the weakening of control over the economy. Singh spent the liberalization of Indian economy: his fight against bureaucracy and reduced taxes. He advocated the "mixed model" of the economy, in which infrastructure and agriculture remain under the control of companies owned. During Singh's finding as Minister of Finance of the Indian economy was growing 7 percent a year while inflation for this period was reduced from seventeen percent to five. Singh called the architect of India's economic reforms known as "manmohanomika" (Manmohanomics). He left the ministerial post in 1996, when the Congress lost the parliamentary elections nationalist party Bharatiya Janata Party (Bharatiya Janata Party) and the government of Narasimha Rao resigned.

. In October 1991, when he was finance minister, Singh came from the INC to the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) - the upper house of Indian Parliament, and thereafter repeatedly re-elected and has participated in several parliamentary committees
. From 1998 to 2004, Singh was the leader of the opposition in the Council of States. In 1999, Singh ran for the lower house of parliament from South Delhi, but lost the election. He almost did not make political statements, focusing on criticism of the economic activities of the Government. At this time he was perceived as the least tainted politician in India.

In the parliamentary elections in May 2004 won a victory in Congress, but party leader Sonia Gandhi (Sonia Gandhi) suddenly refused to take the post of Prime Minister. Instead, the government offered Singh to lead. He became the first Sikh, who had occupied this high office and the first non-Hindu prime minister in the history of India.

. Already in the early years of Singh's government devotes considerable attention to agricultural development and reduction of unemployment, in this regard, we developed a special employment program
. An important achievement of Singh's government considered to be concluded in 2005 with U.S. agreement on, . that the U.S. will provide India nuclear technology and fuel (follow this decision, . however, . blocked by the parliamentary faction of the Communists until 2008).,

. In foreign policy, Singh made a special effort to normalize and develop relations of India with neighboring countries
. In 2005 he became the first in 29 years Indian leader to visit Afghanistan. In April 2005, an historic visit to India, Pervez Musharraf, President of Pakistan, a country with which India has traditionally been a complex relationship. Singh has also repeatedly conducted negotiations with the leadership of China, and India has unresolved territorial disputes in December 2007, Indian and Chinese army even conducted joint military exercises.

. October 1, 2008 Congress leadership has announced that if he wins the party elections in 2009 Singh will retain his post.

. Y Singh has a wife Shrimati Gursharan Kaur (Shrimati Gursharan Kaur) and three daughters.

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Manmohan Singh, photo, biography
Manmohan Singh, photo, biography Manmohan Singh  Indian Prime Minister in May 2004. Prior to that, since 1991, was finance minister from 1990 to 1991 - Adviser to the Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs, from 1985 to 1987 - Vice, photo, biography
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