Hawks Howard Winchester( American film director, screenwriter, producer)
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Biography Hawks Howard Winchester
Howard Hawks - American film director, screenwriter, producer. Movies' Morning Patrol "(1930), 'Scarface' (1932), 'Bringing up Baby' (1938), 'Deep Sleep' (1946), 'Red River' (1948), 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' (1953) 'Rio Bravo' (1959) and others
. Howard Winchester Hawks was born May 30, 1896 in Goshen (Indiana) to a wealthy family
. Since childhood Hawks went to a privileged private school 'Phillips Academie', Polytechnic Institute, he studied at the Faculty of Technology Cornell University.
During the First World War, Howard was in the Air Force U.S.. The love of aviation it will keep for a lifetime and even make a few films on this theme.
After serving in the army, the Hawks began his career in Hollywood. He worked as an assistant director, was a producer, author and screenwriter series subtitle movies. Howard became friends with such a key figure in Hollywood, as Victor Fleming, and influential producer Irving Tцгllberg.
In 1926 he began his directorial career in the 'Fox'. Widespread popularity director brought the 'girl in every port' (1928) - the story of two pugnacious sailor (Victor Mc Lagle and Robert Armstrong). This was the first film where the theme emerged, common to all creative Hawks - the theme of male friendship.
Universal formula for directing Howard Hawks owned by Franц¬ois Truffaut 'His paintings are divided into two groups of adventure films and comedies. Some people chanted, praised his intelligence, physical and moral strength in the other describes the degeneration and lack of will of the same person in the bosom of modern civilization. Consequently, Howard Hawks kind of moralist '.
The real success came to him with the sound film. In 1932, Howard Hawks creates an undoubted masterpiece - 'Scarface'. This is a fictionalized version of the history of Al Capone and his associates. Gangster Classics - Paul Muni as a dangerous criminal with a scar on his cheek, and dark-haired, large-eyed Ann Dvorak as his sister.
Gangster named Tony Kamonte comes to power on the corpses with terrifying ease. He attracts the attention of the spectators primitive animal cruelty. Truffaut believed that the Hawks deliberately shot by Paul Muni, so that it looked like a monkey dangling from his hands, slightly stooped, his face contorted grimace permanently. Through the entire movie comes the theme of the cross (it appears on the walls, on doors, created with the lighting). Critics point out that this visual idea, like some musical motif is the 'orchestration' to Tony scar, a sign of death.
Hawks pass easily from one genre to another. In 1934, the screen goes his comedy 'Twentieth Century' - a satire on theatrical manners. In another screwball comedy "Bringing up Baby '(1938) became a hero enthusiastic paleontologist, notice nothing around. Gradually he acquires a taste for life and comes to the conclusion that not only are beautiful mummy, but a woman living. Cary Grant and Katharine Hepburn played just brilliantly. In this scene was filmed as a real leopard, with whom Grant has flatly refused to work. As recalled Hepburn on the set of gaiety reigned 'We laughed from morning to night'.
Hawks every time was embarrassed, if too much touted some of his films. He did not like noisy companies. In his spare time Howard was lost, along with Clark Gable on a hunt or chase on motorcycles. On the Hawks recalled only when the screen went out of his new job.
. Paying tribute to the passion of youth, . Hawks takes 'Aviation' film 'Only angels have wings' (1939) with Cary Grant, . then receives a nomination for 'Oscar' for biographical picture 'Sergeant York' (1941), . Finally, . responds to current events, ribbon 'Air Force' (1943).,
. In 1945, the Hawks brings to the screen novel by Ernest Hemingway's 'Have and Have Not'
. Humphrey Bogart played Morgan, an American, rough sea-dog with a heart of gold. The role of his beloved Hawks gave the 19-year-old debutant Lauren Bacall.
Howard worked with the mood. Every morning, he arranged a rehearsal. First, the actors read the text, then the scene was played for as long as it did not suit the director.
Hawks was known as an eccentric man. When someone else from the producers came to watch the filming, he immediately announced a break and continued to work only after the departure of visitors. Howard admitted that this clever Admission learned from John Ford.
Arguably, the Hawks - the only director, who agreed to work with William Faulkner. Everything is explained simply, they were old and good friends, together hunted. Writer Howard read his new works, and even borrowed money from him. In 1948, on the screens of America released the first western Hawks 'Red River' with John Wayne and Montgomery Clift young debutant. Hero picture kills anyone who makes their rights on its territory. He always buries the dead, and then read over the grave of the Holy Scriptures. Gradually he grows up a whole section of the cemetery ... The culmination of the movie was an episode when the maddened herd rushes across the prairie, zataptyvaya cowboys who try to stop the animals. This scene was given to Howard Hawks with incredible difficulty. She filmed a half weeks with fifteen cameras. In order to screen the herd appeared to be indomitable, sweeps away everything in its path power, the camera worked in slow-motion mode. As it turned out, Hawks tried not in vain, this scene became a classic in American cinema.
'Red River' has made a stunning impression on audiences and critics. Enthusiasm was rapid and universal.
In the early 1950's Hawks puts comedy with Marilyn Monroe - frivolous ekstsentriadu 'Tricks monkeys' (1952) and 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' (1953). Producer Zanuck was searching for a director who would be able to use я-пTп©п¦пT Marilyn Monroe. He invited the Hawks' We would like to achieve a final recognition of the Monroe. Whenever we try to submit it in any story, from an elusive subject, or Marilyn. What are your thoughts on this '' Error is - said Hawks - that you're trying to give to Marilyn Monroe as a real character, while it is absolutely not designed for this. I see only one way to make it acceptable - take in the musical comedy '. In Monroe's partner, he invited a strong actress Jane Russell.
. When Zanuck overlooked 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' and heard Marilyn sings his sweet, shrill voice 'Woman can not live without diamonds', he realized that success would be a stunning
. Unexpected opinion has been expressed about the Franц¬ois Truffaut film 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' is not sweet and cynical entertainment strip, as is commonly believed, but a stern, angry work, intelligent and ruthless ... Curiosities at Hawks, whatever label on it or hang, is always different novelty and originality '.
Immediately after the sparkling comedy Hawks puts biblical drama 'Land of Pharaohs' (1955), and then western 'Rio Bravo' (1959). 'If I offered to call a film that justifies the existence of all of Hollywood, I would call' Rio Bravo '- wrote the British critic Robin Wood. - This film is truly a quintessential American classicist '. In 'Rio Bravo' is no complex psychological moves, the overall tone - cheerful, in the final, as usual, the triumph of male friendship, complied with all laws of classic westerns.
. By scripting the majority of his films, . one of the most gifted representatives of the classical Hollywood cinema, . Hawks failed to adapt to new situations, . established in the 1970's, . which initiated the development of new themes, . themes and stylistic devices, . and stopped work in film,
. In this regard, often recall the words of Truffaut 'director with impeccable past and the present dispute. "
Hawks lived a long life. He was a real guru for young filmmakers. Sam Howard described himself as a craftsman of the cinema, adding that 'I am the narrator - is the main quality for the director'. In 1974 he was awarded an honorary Oscar for his contribution to cinema.
. Howard Hawks died Dec. 26, 1977 at his home in Palm Springs.
. Howard Winchester Hawks was born May 30, 1896 in Goshen (Indiana) in a family paper manufacturer, Frank Hawks and his wife Helen
. In 1906-1908 studies at the secondary school in 1908-1913 at the University of Pasadena (California) in 1914 at Phillips Exeter Academy (Mass.), in 1915-1917 at Cornell University (New York). Gets Diploma in Engineering. In 1917-1919 served in the U.S. Army Air Force, undergoing military training in Texas, receives a rank of lieutenant. 1920-1925 racer, designer at an aviation plant.
In 1916-1917 during the holidays working in the studio script department Feymous Pleyers-Lasky (later Paramount). In 1919-1921 an independent producer of films dvuhchastevyh Alan Doohan, Marshall Neilan, Allen Holubara. In 1922-1924 in the script department of Paramount, participates in the work on scenarios for more than 60 movies, buys, in particular, the rights to the stories of Joseph Conrad and Jack London. In 1924 moves to MGM, as Laski does not allow him to engage in stage direction. In 1925 transferred to William Fox, who offers him the director's contract. (According to other sources, between 1922 and 1924 Hawks worked as an independent producer, and from 1924 to 1926 in the script department of Paramount.) In 1926 the first film as a director - "The path to glory 'on his own script.
. 1926-1970 participating in the above scenarios, all of his films.
. He also ...
. Aviator - race driver - sailor - the breeder, horse breeders - mountain skier - Fisherman - Hunter - a carpenter - a collector of ancient weapons - the architect - oksidentalnoy collector of paintings and engravings - a jeweler - a constructor of racing cars and airplanes (in 1936 designed the car Hawks won the race in Indianapolis) .,
. In 1975 an honorary Oscar, a prize of the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts.
. Howard Hawks died Dec. 26, 1977 at his home in Palm Springs.