TERME Lev Sergeyevich( Inventor)
Comments for TERME Lev Sergeyevich
Biography TERME Lev Sergeyevich
Lev Theremin (1896-1993
1. Group of electronic musical instruments:
2. Security alarm
3. Unique system of eavesdropping "Buran"
4. The world's first television set - far-sight
. worked on:
. - Speech recognition
. - Refrigeration Rights
. - Identification to vote in criminology
. - Military gidroakustkoy
. The spring of 1926 the engineer Lev Theremin demonstrated the People's Commissariat of Defense the world's first television set - far-sight
. He set up the camera lens on the street, the screen is positioned in the cabinet, and the red generals Ordzhonikidze, Voroshilov, Budyonny Tukhachevskiy together and cried with joy: the screen in the courtyard was Stalin!
. Only a year needed to address Termen fantastic goals - the creation of the electric far-sight
. However, for him, it seemed, life there was no difficulty. From a young age he impressed those around her talents: fond of mathematics, physics, in his room is always something exploding. The University Theremin studied simultaneously on the physical and celestial faculties simultaneously engaging in the St. Petersburg Conservatory cello.
. Before the revolution, he managed to finish the military engineering school, and even to war for the king-priest to the rank of lieutenant radio battalion
. But the Bolsheviks did not shoot him, but, in contrast, have served in electrical engineering battalion. And a year later was appointed chief of the most powerful in the country Tsarskoselskaya radio.
After demobilization in 1920 he was invited to work in the Physical-Technical Institute, Professor Joffe. Theremin gets the job - to take radio measurements of the dielectric constant of gases at variable temperature and pressure. During the tests proved that the device emitted a sound, height and strength of which depended on the position of the hand between the capacitor plates. Perhaps just a physicist and did not attach to this value, and a physicist - a graduate of the Conservatory, sought to combine these sounds ringing. And it happened!
Thus was born the theremin musical instrument - the voice Termen. And a simplified version of the theremin - burglar alarm system - built on the same principle: as soon as the attacker turned out in an electric field, heard a beep. By the way, in our time in expensive cars are still installed alarm system, which is based on the invention Terme.
And in the life of Lev Sergeyevich it was the first step on the road to glory. Although colleagues laughed: "Theremin played by Gluck on the voltmeter, the scientist is in no way confused. In 1921, he demonstrated his invention at the VIII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress. Surprise the audience knew no bounds - no strings and keys, unlike anything that the timbre. The newspaper "Pravda" published an enthusiastic review on the radio concerts took place to a wider audience. Also during the Congress adopted a plan of electrification, and the Theremin with its unique power tools could be an excellent advocate for the electrification plan of the whole country.
. A few months after the Congress Termen invited to the Kremlin.
. Halt, who goes there!
. In the study, but Lenin was still about ten
. First, Theremin demonstrated the high commission on the alarm system. He added the device to a large vase with a flower, and as soon as one of those present went up to her, there was a loud call. Lev Sergeyevich recalled: "One of the soldiers said that it is wrong. Lenin asked: "Why wrong?" And the military took a warm hat, put it on the head, wrapped his hand and leg coat and squatting slowly creep up to my alarm. Signal has turned again. "
Yet the main "hero" of the audience began theremin. The tool is so like Lenin that he gave "good" on tour Termen and ordered to give him a free train ticket "to promote the new tool" across the country.
. By the way, connected with Lenin, another eye-bar life Terme.
. Lev Sergeyevich was keen on a fight to death
. He he studied the work on the study of animal cells, frozen in permafrost, and mused about what would happen to people if they are frozen, then thawed. When it became known about the death of the leader, Theremin sent his assistant to slide with a proposal to freeze the body of Lenin, to later years when the technology will be developed, to resurrect him from the dead. But the assistant returned with sad news: the internal organs are removed, the body is prepared for embalming. In order Theremin and left the study for the revival of human. A decade later, his idea was embodied in America, and now dozens of frozen lucky ones waiting for the resurrection.
. The episode, which could become a milestone
. After the demonstration, a television set in the People's Commissariat Theremin showed it at the V All-Union Congress of Physicists in Moscow
. The invention has caused a furore, "Ogonyok" and "Izvestia" wrote enthusiastically: "The name Termen part of the history of world science, along with Popov and Edison!" It seemed, from the experiment to the mass production within reach ...
. Termen proposed the creation of a television system for the border units
. But before the army is not reached: too poor a country's technological base. Therefore, the development of the secret list, and the title of pioneer in the field of television a few years later went to the emigrant from Russia, Vladimir Zworykin.
. In the knock-out "Grand Opera" and other
. The summer of 1927 in Frankfurt met international conference on physics and electronics
. Young Land of the Soviets had to be worthy of a report. And Theremin and his instrument became the trump card of Russia delegation. He struck the Europeans and the report on the theremin, and concerts of classical music to the public: "Heavenly Music", "voices of angels" - choked newspapers delight.
One after another, followed by an invitation from Berlin, London, Paris. The most enchanting concert Termen held in Paris: conservative Theater Grand Opera for the first time in its history gave room for a whole evening to some unknown Russian. This influx of visitors (even standing tickets were sold in boxes), and such a success in the theater did not see 35 years ...
. Meanwhile, Joffe, who at that time was in the U.S., has received orders from several companies to manufacture theremin in 2000 with the proviso that the Theremin come to America to oversee the work
. But instead of one trip Lev Sergeyevich received two: from the People's Commissar of Education Lunacharskogo and the military departments.
Trump on the table!
And handsome young Leo Theremin floats on an ocean liner "Majestic" in America. World famous violinist JцЁzsef Sigetti floated on the same boat, but envious of the fee, which offered Termen largest traders of America for the honor of the first to hear theremin. But the first concert of the inventor gave to the press, academics and renowned musicians. The success was impressive, and with the permission of the Soviet authorities Theremin founded in New York City firm of studio Teletouch production theremin.
Things went brilliantly. Concerts Termen held in Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston. Thousands of Americans with enthusiasm began to learn to play the theremin, and corporations, General Electric and RCA (Radio Corporation of America) bought the licenses for its production.
. Gryanuvshy at the turn of the 30-ies "great crisis" has ruined many wealthy people
. But he did not lose my Termen. Of course, the people was not to music, but the resourceful Russian had another trump card - Burglar Alarm. Teletouch Corporation quickly refocused on its production, and sensors of Termen digging with his hands. They found even in the terrible prison, the U.S. Sing Sing and Fort Knox, which kept the American gold reserve. So from the business was all right, but on a musical career there has been a crisis.
Cake for a violinist with the theremin
In an ecstatic chorus of admirers Termen become voices discontent: the concerts he shamelessly hypocritical. The fact that a pure play on the theremin is incredibly difficult: the performer has no reference points (such as keys at the piano or a violin string) and must rely solely on the ears and muscle memory.
. Performing Arts Termen clearly not enough
. It needed a virtuoso. Then fate brought him to the young emigrant from Russia Clara Reisenberg. As a child she was reputed to be the miracle child, a violinist with a great future. But whether trumped hands, whether due to a hungry child with a violin she had to leave: the muscles could not withstand the loads. But theremin was on her hands, and Clara soon learned how to play it. There were also no whirlwind romance, especially since the Theremin by that time was free.
The first time Theremin married in 1921 at the lovely Kate Konstantinova, and before coming to America, their family life was smooth and stable. But in New York, Kate was able to find work only in the suburbs and came home once a week. Six months later, a "family" life to Termen young man came and said that they love each other, Katya. And then it became known that the visitor is a fascist organization. And in the Soviet Embassy demanded that the Theremin and his wife divorced. What he did. So by the time of the meeting with Clara Lev Sergeyevich opened a new love.
He was 38 years old, she - 18. They were gorgeous couple, liked to visit cafes and restaurants. Lev Sergeyevich beautifully looked after and loved to surprise girlfriend various miracles. For example, a birthday he gave her a cake, which rotates around its axis and was decorated with a candle, lights up when approaching him.
Beautiful novel was not destined to culminate in marriage. Clara chose another - Robert Rockmore, a lawyer and a successful impresario, so that her musical career was assured.
Why swim the wall?
A Theremin with his head immersed in the work. Even after his arrival in America he took on lease for 99 years, six-story mansion at 54 Fifth Avenue. In addition to private apartments in it housed a workshop and studio. Here often Lev Sergeyevich played music with Albert Einstein: physicist - the violin, the inventor - on theremin. Einstein was fascinated by the idea to combine music and spatial images. A Theremin invented how to do it: a tool invented the light and ritmikon. Huge transparent wheel engraved on them geometric pattern rotated in front of stroboscopic lamp. As soon as the musician changed the pitch, changed the frequency of flares and strobe images - the spectacle produces an impressive array. Well, science fiction began when the rise and fall of the wall studio. Of course, not really, but with the play of light. Spellbound visitors gasp in amazement!
Rumors of these experiments, the studio attracted many famous people. Among the guests were millionaires Termen DuPont, Ford and Rockefeller. However, Theremin himself to the mid 30-ies was included in the list of twenty-five of the world of celebrities. And even a member of the club of millionaires.
Was he really a millionaire? Not known for certain. Some say that a lot of money and Termen personally, and Soviet Russia brought Teletouch Corporation. But others argue that Termen funded military intelligence. Because the true purpose of his trip to America was spying.
Every two weeks, Lev Sergeyevich came in a small-town cafe, where he waited two young people. They listened to his reports and given new assignments. However, these tasks were easy and not particularly Termen distracted from work. And he is already in full was fascinated by the most fantastic of his ideas - an instrument that gave birth to the music from the dance. In fact, this kind of theremin: sound is not only hands but also the movements of the whole body, and the name he was given by the - terpsiton - on behalf of the goddess of dance Terpsichore. At the same time each sound corresponded to a particular color bulb. Can you imagine what it was an unusual sight, because any movement of the dancer echoed sounds and twinkling colored lights!
To create a concert program Theremin invited a group of African-American ballet dancers of the company. Alas, to get them to harmony and accuracy not possible, the project had to be postponed. But this troupe danced the beautiful mulatto Lavinia Williams, who won the Lev Sergeyevich not only as a dancer, but as a woman. Theremin decided to marry.
It did not have dreamed that a marriage with a black woman who radically changed his life. But as soon as the lovers registered their marriage, before Termen closed doors of many homes in New York: America was not yet aware of political correctness. He lost his informants, which caused serious discontent with the Soviet intelligence. And in 1938 Termen ordered to immediately leave for Russia. Lavinia was told that she would come to her husband following the steamer.
Most spouses have not seen each other. A Theremin to the end kept the marriage certificate issued by the Embassy of Russia in America.
Ten years after his departure from Russia Theremin arrived in Leningrad. And it turned out that it's no use: the Physico-Technical Institute of older workers has left almost no. Terman went to look for work in Moscow, but on March 15 in a hotel at the Kiev station they came for him with a warrant for his arrest.
. In Butyrskaya Termen investigator said that he, as a defector, of course, be shot if he did not cooperate
. A month later, Theremin "confessed" that, together with a group of astronomers, he planned the murder of Kirov. His version was this: Kirov (which by then was already dead! ") Intended to visit the Pulkovo Observatory. Astronomers have laid landmine in the Foucault pendulum. A Theremin radio signal from the United States had to blow it up as soon as the Kirov will come to the pendulum. The investigator was not even embarrassed that Foucault pendulum is not in Pulkovo, and in the Kazan Cathedral! Lev Sergeyevich got eight years and was sent to the Kolyma.
But in the camp Theremin spent the entire year. He was appointed a senior on the criminals, who were importing stones from the mountains and they paved the way. Theremin mechanized the process by building a wheelbarrow with monorails. Work has begun to boil! Brigade tripled rations, and the paper about the unusual prisoner went to Moscow.
. The winter of 1940 he was transferred to Omsk, in the aviation sharashka Tupolev, where he was the war to develop equipment for unmanned aircraft, and radio beacons for naval operations
. But the crown of his stay in sharashka eavesdropping was the invention of "Buran".
. Trojan horse from the pioneers
. ... Independence Day, July 4, 1945, the U.S. Ambassador to Russia Averell Harriman received a gift from the Soviet pioneers wooden panels depicting an eagle
. Panel hung in your study Ambassador. And then the U.S. intelligence services have lost peace: has started a mysterious leak. Only 7 years later found inside a mysterious gift cylinder with the membrane inside. One and a half years, engineers were fighting over the explanation of this focus. The secret was simple: the house opposite the window of the study was directed at an invisible beam, a membrane, fluctuated in time with speech reflected his back, and he was recorded on a special device.
. Then Theremin so perfected his "Buran", that the membrane was not necessary - it fulfilled the role of window glass
. Rumor has it that the "Buran" is still in service with our secret services.
The Soviet Government highly appreciated the merits of the inventor - in 1947 zek (!) Was awarded the Stalin Prize of I degree. And after the liberation Termen isolated two-room apartment on Leninsky Prospekt.
It seemed stupid and evil was over a misunderstanding and now inventor osyplyut honors. But no official titles Theremin did not receive all of his patents were covered stamped "owls. Secret ". And Lev Sergeyevich continued to work in the secret laboratories of the KGB. Soon, he also found himself a new wife - a young typist Masha Gushchina, who bore him daughters-twins.
Almost twenty years Theremin deals with specific developments for the all-powerful agency. At first it was promising work - speech recognition, voice identification, the military hydroacoustics. But over time, priorities have changed. As recalled Theremin, "supposedly in the West invented the device to determine where there are flying saucers, and we also had to wrestle with similar devices. I realized that this is cheating, but can not refuse - and one day decided it was better to retire. "
. Employers not objected, believing that with the old man could no longer take, and in 1964, Theremin did parted with the secret police, under the invisible eye that was nearly 40 years.
. Theremin - not dies!
. It seemed that life is over. But Lev Sergeyevich, true to his motto "Theremin - not dies!" (so read his name on the contrary), is arranged in the acoustic laboratory of the Moscow State Conservatory. Nothing disturbed the old man's life measured up until in 1968 a correspondent of the New York Times, who prepared a report on the Moscow Conservatory, did not know that the great Theremin alive.
. This is sensational news in America was interpreted as the resurrection from the dead: Encyclopedia Americana in all it was stated that Theremin died in 1938
. In the name of Lev Sergeyevich brought a flood of letters from his overseas friends who tried to meet with reporters from various newspapers and TV stations. Conservatoire authorities, alarmed at such a modest person of interest in mechanics, it simply dismissed. A piece of equipment thrown into the dustbin.
The last twenty five years Theremin worked in the laboratory of acoustics MSU. Mechanics 6 level. He slowly worked his theremin - some restored, some improved, even thought this, in which the sound through photovoltaic cells arose from a single glance only a musician.
. Another Lev Sergeyevich frequently visiting Scriabin Museum, where he participated in the creation of a musical synthesizer
. The long awaited time - the era of electronic instruments. Theremin as if from the air trying to catch the ideas that sometimes seem utopian. But it later emerged that over these ideas, regardless of it worked the Japanese firm Yamaha.
Well, on theremin Lev Sergeyevich learned to play his niece Lida CAVIN. For twenty years she was a consummate performer and concerts traveled all over Europe. In 1989, the year and Termen invited to the Festival of experimental music in France. And he, 93-year-old, went!
But most of all in the sunset of his life Theremin surprised surrounding his entry into the Communist Party: "I promised to Lenin". Lev Sergeyevich previously tried, but for the "terrible crime" in the party would not accept. So the Communist Theremin was only in 1991, simultaneously with the fall of the Soviet Union.
... In 1951, the future American film director Steve Martin saw the film "The Day the Earth Stood Still". But it is not shaken by aliens, and the sound of unearthly theremin, accompanied by actions. For several years he had spoken with his brother, sounds similar to those that engenders theremin. And many years later, in 1980, Steve Martin was looking for music for his film. And the search led him to Clara Rockmore, who told the director about the legendary inventor. Then it occurred to Martin's idea of making a documentary about Termen. But after 11 years, before he could come to Moscow to meet with Termen and inviting him to America. The elderly maestro distractedly walked the streets of New York and hardly recognize the place, which took place ten years of his life. The most hectic was the meeting with Clara Rockmore. Clara long time did not agree to it - the years, they say, do not paint a woman.
. - Ay, Klarenok, well, what our age! - Said 95-year-old Theremin.
. After America, he went back in the Netherlands at the festival "SchцTnberg - Kandinsky," as he returned to Moscow, found in his room in a communal complete destruction - the broken furniture, smashed equipment, crushed records
. Apparently, someone from the neighbors greatly needed his room. Daughter of Lev Sergeyevich took to himself. But its vitality is exhausted, and after a few months, November 3, 1993, Theremin died.
Steve Martin film "Electronic Odyssey Lion Thermo" was released after the death of the hero. But his theremin live and still. Among the many companies that produce them - the company Moog Mugic, which owns the inventor of the first synthesizer, Robert Moog. Once he said about Terme: "It's just a genius who is capable of anything!"
Could not he only one - to become a national pride of Russia ...
1. album "Territory" group "Aquarium"
2. songs "Good Vibrations", pop group the Beach Boys
3. Hitchcock Spellbound ( "Charmed")
4. film Bill Uaydera "Lost Weekend"
5. Disney film "Alice in Wonderland"
6. disk Led Zeppelin "Lotta Love"