Bykov Leonid Fyodorovich( Actor)
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Biography Bykov Leonid Fyodorovich
Leonid Bykov was born December 12, 1928 in Znamenskoye Slavic Donetsk region. From childhood Leonid Bykov boy grew up clever, cheerful, but never dreamed of becoming an actor. Having seen movies about pilots ( "Valery Chkalov," "Fighters"), he dreamed of the sky and dreamed of flying school. However, external data he had some not so hot: small stature and the face of the eternal adolescent. So when in 1943 in Barnaul, where their families were evacuated immediately after the war began, he went to the recruitment office, said he had already turned eighteen, and asked to send it to the front he would be exposed. "Sooner you are at the front, greenhorn, - said a stern commissar. - You first school finished. "
But his dream of a flying career, our hero still has not left. In 1945, when he was in Leningrad, he enrolled in the 2 nd special school for pilots (Aerotour), where he studied for only a month. Due to the growth of 136 centimeters him expelled from school, and on this flight career Leonid Bykov ended.
That's when he decided to go to the artists. But in this field, as well as a flying career, our hero initially disappointed. During the first attempt in 1946 entered the Kiev school of actors, he fell flat on the entrance exams. Now round loser waiting bleak homecoming, ridicule pals. Apparently, to avoid all this, Bykov, and went to Kharkov, there to try again to become an artist and to attend the local theater institute. And there is something unexpected happened. Whether to retreat to our hero was already nowhere to go, and he was persistent, whether the examiners were perspicacious in Kharkov Kiev, but Bykov exams passed successfully and was assigned to the 1-year student of the Institute.
. Graduated from the Kharkov Institute of Theater in 1951, Bykov was in company of the Kharkiv Theater T
. Shevchenko, in which he worked until 1960.
Early work in film
In 1952 he played his first role in film. It was a film directed by Isaac Shmaruka and Viktor Ivchenko "Destiny Marina". Leonid inherited episodic role of a simple country boy Sashko. In other roles in the film were shot star of the then Soviet cinema: Nikolai Gritsenko, Boris Andreyev, Mikhail Kuznetsov. At the box office in 1954 produced a picture of unexpected furor, taking 2 nd place. This circumstance played a positive role in the fate Bykov - he was noticed and remembered not only spectators, but also filmmakers.
. As a result, in 1954, directed by Alexander Ivanovski and Hope Kosheverova invite bulls for a big role (Petit Mokina) in his painting "Tiger Tamer"
. The film was a huge success with the public. Audiences immediately fell in love with the actor. Without him it would be hard to imagine all the vicissitudes of a love triangle, and the comedy would have been deficient. Bykov made it kind of touching and humorous note. What cost one scene Petit explain his love for a childhood friend Lenochka Vorontsova, from simple cleaners turned into the stars of the circus. In his excitement he trusts the most beloved to read his letter of acceptance. Shiny, happy on the success of the arena, the girl reads: "Hi, Lena!" If you heat the metal first white hot: ". Petya's letter will not finish reading, the reading is interrupted by the words "you're the best, most good: you're my only friend:". Love the hero with a huge bouquet in the hands of all will understand and only sad pronounce: "Well, well, love can not be forced:".
Yes, the early heroes of Bykov often not lucky, they continually got into some trouble. Sometimes, however, they were looking for adventure on his tempestuous head! As Maxim Perepelitsa of the same name comedy Anatoliy Granik.
Film Maxim Perepelitsa "was filmed almost simultaneously with the shooting" Tiger Tamer "in the same Lenfilm. The success of this film at the box office was significantly lower than the previous two, but for bulls is this picture really opened the door to a large cinema and earned him a great love of the audience. Bykov played Maxim guy a bad egg, but a good and cheerful. True, the jokes that jovial buffoon, not always harmless to others, and his village is literally on the ears stood on its pleasures, even a favorite girl hesitated there. But, . Perepelitsa admitted their mistakes and corrected so fun, . quickly, . with flame, . that immediately commit new, . who said goodbye to him again: But the army forced the guy to change, . learn to take responsibility and be responsible for themselves and, . and for other,
. After this role to another as Maxim Bykov, no one approached, but there is a striking confirmation of the huge viewership of love and respect.
. Since that time, Bykov actively removed
. Unrequited love, a bad egg, persistence - these are the main characteristics of Bykov's heroes. However, most of these were roles that are similar to each other: such things Maxims Perepelitsy small-scale. The actor did not want to endlessly exploit the same mask (in the theater he basically also get the comic role). Therefore, accepting the new proposals, he tried to choose the role of different plan. So he got into films: "Alien kin" (1956), "My dear man," "Volunteers" (both - 1958), "Quarrel in Lucas," "May the stars" (both - 1959).
Surprisingly for bulls was in 1958 a proposal from Alexei Batalov. He had joined the adaptation of "The Overcoat" H. V. Gogol and Bykov suggested the primary role. To say that the actor was genuinely surprised by this choice, then, to say nothing. He was just shocked and ... pleased with such trust. Nothing like it was still one of the filmmakers did not offer. Therefore Bykov immediately rushed to the leadership of the Kharkov theater with a request to let him go to Moscow to take in this picture. Managers, however, immediately cooled ardor young star. "You have too often disappears on the set - they said Bykov. - It's time to pay attention to the theater ". In short, in Moscow, the actor never to be allowed. Main role in "The Overcoat" in A. Batalova played by Rolan Bykov.
. Meanwhile, in 1959, Bykov received another unexpected proposal - the directors with the same athletic abilities Semyon Tumanov and Georgi Shchukin decided to make a film Aleshkina Love "and the main role is invited to
. Initially Bykov strongly doubted whether to take on this role. After all, he was already over thirty, and the hero of the film was barely twenty, he was in love with a beautiful girl, and she, after all, was in love with him. However, the creators of these pictures on his doubts and said: "It was such a Romeo, like you, and we need". In the end, Bykov consent was obtained, and the film crew went to full-scale survey on virgin soil.
Film "Aleshkina Love" was released in 1961, the country. Bykov played in it one of his best roles in film and on the right took a leading place among the then Soviet star. In "Alyosha's love", he used a completely different colors, showed a sense of wholeness of endless love with a boy.
When the film "Aleshkina Love" was released the country, Bykova in Kharkov was no. Broke with the theater, he moved with his wife and two children in Leningrad, the city, which, in fact, led him to a large cinema. The decision to move to this city a lot of help and that Bykov promised to Lenfilm try to give themselves in filmmaking. As a result, in 1961, along with director Herbert Rappaport, our hero took off his short film "How to rope or twists ...". And although the picture remains virtually unnoticed as critics and viewers, Bykova maloudachnaya this attempt did not deter from directing.
In 1963, he took off his own comedy "Rabbit", which played a major role. And although the picture at the box office did not take the last place, the criticism of his swearing in unison. Apparently, Bykov himself understood that took not very well made film, if in conversation with director Alexei Simonov said: "In my whole middle Soviet cinema holds". Since its expectations Bykov not justified, direction "Lenfilm" to the direction he is no longer permitted. And he himself is not eager to get there. Even from the numerous suggestions from other directors withdraw their films declined, . so from 1961 to 1964 on account Bykov was only a few roles in films: "In seven of the Wind" (1962), . "When bred Bridges" (1963), . "Caution, . Grandma! "(1964).,
. In 1965, L
. Bykov was awarded the title of Honored Artist of the RSFSR. A year later he and his family (they have another child was born) left Leningrad and moved to Kiev. Reason for departure can be found in the letters to one of the Bykov's closest friends in Kharkiv theater - Nicholas Borichenko. In one of them he wrote: "For almost a year not to withdraw. I do not want. Refused on 9 scenarios. I do not want to participate in the false and anti-artistic things. Of course, not long endure, it is necessary to carry out the plan studio. Increasingly think that we should go home. But in the theater, obviously, the same. What's the point? How can I do to live on the level? Maybe it's our damn job? .. "
Apparently, a change of scenery was necessary to him as air, and he really hoped that relatives of the wall will help him find his second creative breathing. Unfortunately, he was mistaken. During the period from 1966 to 1971, Bykov not appeared in any film not only on behalf of the studio A. Dovzhenko, but also on other. In a letter to all the same friend he wrote: "I think I lost myself. Other definition can not find. I have a simple three-month. Waived five works. Oh is all bad. I go for salary. Shame ... "
But the line from another letter L. Bulls: "The whole night not sleeping. Would tell the whole truth, as the ruined theater. Why the Kiev studio went directors Alov and Naumov, Khutsiev, Don, Chuhray? We finally began to judge people for negligence in Technology. And when we finally begin to judge for criminal attitude towards people? Worst thing - public indifference. Servility. Cult could grow only on the basis of servility. "
"Go to fight some old"
Bykov was an old dream of staging the picture of the heroism of the Soviet pilots during the war. Love for the people of this profession lived in it permanently. Therefore, when the late 60's a glimmer of possibility of setting a film about military pilots, Bykov immediately seized upon it. In collaboration with the writers Eugene Onoprienko and Alexander Satskaya script was written by future film "go to fight some old". But put a picture for a long time not given, considering it is not too heroic. To prove the opposite, Bykov started to "run" script on the stage. Reading Bykov separate pieces of the script in various cities of the Soviet Union caused by the audience so excited that he is no doubt the correctness of created works, the authors did not arise. You understand that, in the end, and the leaders of Ukrainian cinema. In 1972 Bykov, finally, began to shoot the film.
Painting of "Singing the squadron," Fighting in the sky with Nazi aces, was only the second big picture in his director's biography. She is in a sense, the embodiment of dreams Bykova of the sky, the Aviation. And most importantly, in this picture to realize its old dream requiem for a soldier who never returned from the war: The work on the painting was not easy, and to this day about her filming goes many rumors. True facts is, . that the then Air Marshal, . Legendary fighter pilot Alexander Pokryshkin, . personally instructed to allocate a film crew of five aircraft, . exhausted their resource, . and from the museum at Monino landing near Kiev brought a real front-line "Kukuruznik",
. However, when the film crew moved in Chernigov, planes did not come there. They waited a few days, but in vain.
Come talk that now is closed. Bykov assembled general council, which agreed to change the director of the film. The new director has arrived, and it is finally put into motion: But the problems were not over. When it was removed is a good half of the picture, Bykov received a telegram-order for immediate shipment to Kiev Anatoly Mateshko young actor performing the role of pilot, nicknamed Darkie. Exit bulls was. Only a few days of freshman drama school, brought an assistant director, he took on the role of Darkie Sergei Podgorny. Actor found, but now had to retake much. And broke planes jammed lumps. In the sky behind the wheel plane rose and the director, and the landing has not always been successful.
In general, if not the enthusiasm of all participants pictures and volunteers is unknown, as if there was destiny pictures. And if not, that portion of liability, which piled on their shoulders Bykov: Delivery of paintings was held on December 27 1973goda. When the room lights came on, everyone saw how Pokryshkin wipes tears. And then "go to fight some old" waited a fantastic success. For five months rolled it looked 54 million viewers!
Much of the success of the picture was obliged to play the actors. And one of the main roles in it, Captain Titarenko, called friends, Maestro, played himself Leonid Fyodorovich Bykov. His Titarenko was a daring and, . experienced ace, . and loyal friend, . ready to support a comrade in a difficult moment, . and father-commander, . Caring about "zheltorotikah" recruits, . quickly becoming a war "old timers": He called incredible sympathy and a habit to clean the card for the tops of the boots, . and so, . as, . returned to his native German plane at airfield, . threw his mechanics: "Accept apparatus! waved without looking!",
. And as the captain smiled Titarenko, as he conducted his "Singing squadron! ..
At the All-Union Festival in Baku, the film won an honorary prize. It could take and the main prize of the festival, if not almost a detective story, the outbreak in the margins of the festival.
The fact is that, at the same festival showing the film Basil Shukshina "Kalina red. Picture excellent, but led to a wave of rejection by officials from the movie. Therefore, they had made a desperate attempt to "push" the film and prevent him to get the main prize. To do this, the Ukrainian delegation was invited to: "Your picture" go to fight some old people "may become the first instead of" Kalina Krasnaya ". However, members of the delegation refused to discuss this issue without Bykova. "Then persuade him!" - Advised them to officials. And at two o'clock in the night in a hotel room, where he lived Bykov and his colleagues have come to the cinema. "We can get the grand prize for" Kalina red "- they told the director. To which he replied: "In the list, which will be Basil SHukshin in the first place, I would be delighted to be at least one-hundredth. After my picture - it is an ordinary film about the war, but it - is a real breakthrough in the exclusion zone, a breakthrough in the field, as before, and think something is not allowed. So give my word director of the festival.
. As a result, "Kalina red" has the same top prize Baku Film Festival.
. "Aty-Baty were soldiers"
. After the triumphant success of the film go to fight some old people "do not notice the talented director was no longer possible
. In the same year he was awarded the title People's Artist of Ukraine. And, unlike many artists of that time, have won the title in a variety of reasons, not for his talent and popularity among the people, Bykov was his well-deserved.
. In 1975 Bykov started to take a new picture, and it again became a topic of war
. The film was called "Aty-Baty, were soldiers" (screenplay written by Boris Vasilyev and Kirill Rappoport). Starring in it withdrew Vladimir Konkin himself Leonid Bykov (it was his 22-part I). Initially, to appear in this picture Bykov did not anticipate. On the role of Corporal Svyatkina try many actors, but none of them came. And then colleagues Bykov said: "Lenya, it's your role. Can not you see? "And they were right. Better Bykova this role could hardly anyone played.
The shooting took place under the picture Zagorsk in February 1976 and were quite complex. In order pictures were identified tanks, artillery, and several army platoons. But preparations for the shooting was delayed until late autumn. Only at the end of November the band went to Zagorsk. They filmed a month for a significant part of the picture. However, when the film showed, it was found that almost all gone in a marriage. Plan studio on fire, flew a work schedule. In addition, the selected platoon of soldiers and military equipment can not be kept indefinitely. And Leonid Fedorovich went to Moscow to receive the Minister of Defense Marshal Grechko.
. First, the marshal yelled for the bulls, did not hesitate in expressions, and then had a long conversation with him, after which the filmmakers commissioned to deal with his assistant
. Upon returning to Zagorsk bulls had a heart attack. In the ambulance he was taken to hospital, . where he wrote his famous letter-testament, . invitation to friends, . director Nikolai Mashchenko and actor and director Ivan Mykolaychuk: Only a month lay Leonid Fyodorovich in Kiev hospital, . where he was transferred from Zagorsk.,
. The very next day after discharge he was appointed the shooting of one of the most difficult scenes pictures, in which he participated, and which demanded from him the enormous emotional and physical strength
. Nesmorya no matter what, the picture was finished.
The heroic work of members of this painting was not in vain. This was another triumph for director and actor Leonid Bykov. In the same year he was awarded the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR.
However, looking at the official line of biographies of Leonid Bykov, yet not be deluded. All of these triumphs, awards, of course, genuinely pleased him, but his soul was restless. Universal flattery, servility, corruption, reigned around him, kept him to live and work. Even the official acceptance of such films as "Aty-Baty, were soldiers", in which there was no policy, no dissent, was rather difficult. When viewing a representative Goskino suddenly ... snoring, sleep smorenny. Then, waking up, began to ask awkward questions: "Why does it have your picture is a strange name? Some children's rhyme ..." Thank God, those present had the spirit of his objection and repel many of the objections and comments.
. Cardiac brought forward during the filming of "Ata-byty, were soldiers:" was not the last
. The next blow to the heart of Leonid Fedorovich struck favorite son Oles, foolishly walked into the history of jewelry store robbery. When Bykov learned that his son was arrested, he suffered a second heart attack. Fortunately, if one can call it happiness, man "got off" the year of treatment in a psychiatric clinic. Because of the events had occurred with her son collapsed and Bykov decided to abandon the Ukrainian State Prize for his film "Aty-Baty, were soldiers, but on the orders of the Communist Party of Ukraine Leonid Fedorovich prize brought directly to your home:
. When the disease lightly dismissed, Bykov went to the studio named after Dovzhenko, to submit his resignation
. This was reported to the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine Shcherbitsky, who Bykova adored. Scherbitsky personally met with a favorite actor. What they said, who knows. But after their conversation, Bykov took his statement:
Seems to support Leonid Fyodorovich, the Committee of Cinematography of the USSR specially picked for him the script. It was a philosophical comedy "Alien". Bykov himself to play in the future picture two roles at once - on Earth, machine Tishkina and his double-alien from outer space Glouza. He began to work enthusiastically. He insisted sketches of scenery, picking the actors.
Filming took place in difficult conditions for bulls. First he was severely mentally. Being honest and decent, he could not see how other people, and his colleagues, vysluzhivayas to power, literally tearing each other's teeth in the struggle for material goods (flats, zagranpoezdki), write denunciations. Apparently, therefore Bykov did not join the ranks of the Communist Party, even though all these years, it always pulled there. In the end, all these external circumstances have led to tragedy.
In early 1979 Bykov suddenly writes a will addressed to his friends - Nicholas Mashchenko and Ivan Mykolaychuk. In this testament Bykov requests in the event of his death (he writes: "I'm leaving soon, I feel that no longer hold out") to take care of his family, to sell the car and t. d. In the same letter Bykov gave the order and about his future funeral. He wanted to be buried only friends, without any formal participation (memorial service at the Cinema House, the speeches of officials and t. etc.). "I do not want any speeches over the grave, only to say:" Farewell "- and sing my favorite song -" Darkie ". Otherwise I'll get up from the grave and go away from you ". That such a brief was something unusual letter. And soon after it was written Bykov really died.
April 12, 1979 Bykov returned to his car from his dacha near Kiev. Front of him moved asfaltirovochny rink, and Bykov decided to bypass. However, as soon as he began to overtake, he ran toward the truck. To avoid a frontal collision, A. Bykov turned the wheel to the side and at full speed crashed into a skating rink. At the time of death Bykov was only 50 years. He left three children.
Bykov's funeral came a lot of people. Before the coffin was carried a photograph of it was filmed in the role of squadron leader Titarenko. And then over his grave sounded "Darkie", as he wanted:
In 1981, friends L. Bykov shot a documentary about him, which is called very simply and accurately: "... which is loved by everyone". In 1994 a small planet, previously designated in an international catalog of minor planets as "1973SO4", named after actor. Bears his name and one of the military aircraft in the Ukraine, the MiG-29. But the principal monument of a remarkable actor and director, Leonid Bykov became his paintings and his heroes:
. 1953 The fate of Marina
. 1954 Tiger Tamer
. 1955 Maxim Perepelitsa
. 1955 Alien kin
. 1957 next to us
. 1958 Volunteers
. 1958 My dear man
. The May 1959 Star
. 1959 argument in Lucas
. 1960 Aleshkina love
. 1960 Careful, Grandma!
. 1961 Horizon
. 1961 as rope or twists ..
. - Director, actor
. 1962 when the divorce bridges
. In 1962 seven winds
. 1963 Big wick
. 1964 Bunny - director, actor
. 1966 In the city of S.
. 1968 Scouts
. 1970 Happiness Anna
. 1973 go to fight alone "old men" - actor, director, writer
. 1976 Aty-Baty, were soldiers ..
. - Actor, director