Severtsov Nikolai( Russia zoologist)
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Biography Severtsov Nikolai
Severtsov Nikolai - a famous Russian traveler, zoogeography, one of the pioneers of ecology and evolutionary theory in Russia. In the years 1857-1879 studied Central Asia and the Pamir. The author works on the zoogeographical zonation Palearctic birds in Russia and Turkestan region.
Severtsov was born in a noble family. His father, Alexei Petrovich, belonged to the village of Peter in Voronezh and a stud farm in the village Hvoschevatom Zemlyansky County. Children Severtsova received home education.
In the summer of 1843 Nicholas Severtsov was admitted to the University of Moscow. During his studies, he met the famous explorer Karelin, after which Central Asia has become for him "scientific view of all life."
In 1856, the Academy of Sciences discussed the draft of the expedition to the lower reaches of the Syr Darya. Management expedition entrusted Severtsova. Turkestan was then considered a "mysterious country" inhabited by different peoples, often warring with each other. The whole territory was divided between his three khanates: Bukhara, Kokand and Khiva. Information about this region acted as a rule, the chance of Russian merchants and ambassadors.
May 18, 1857 a detachment left Petersburg. The place of the final preparation of the expedition was Orenburg - Russian fortress at the turn of Europe and Asia.
In late summer 1857 Severtsov began a journey from Orenburg in the direction of Emba valleys Ileka (system of the Urals) and Temir (a tributary of Emba). Examining the Northern Mugodzhary, he went to the lower reaches of the Emba, where he opened outlets of oil (the first information about Priembinskom oil-rich region), and then explored the northern escarpment Ustyurt. Having South Mugodzhary, he crossed the sands of Big Badgers, going around the North Aral Sea, and past the lake Kamyshlybash went to Kazalinsk, on the lower Syr Darya. There Severtsov moved south to the desert Kyzyl Kum, followed coulee Zhanadari and described the eastern shore of the Aral Sea.
. By 10 December the expedition returned to base at Fort Perovskii (now - the Kyzyl-Orda) with rich zoological, botanical and geological duties.
. The remaining winter months, were engaged in the manufacture of stuffed, determined and labeled collection, to make excursions in the neighborhood.
. Spring 1858 collections were significantly augmented, especially by birds.
. While these lands are often attacked certain groups of stray kokandtsev
. They plundered villages, drove horses, terrorized the population. The most secure area of the lake was considered Dzharty-kul - up the Syr Darya. Return it and was sent from Fort Perovsky detachment of soldiers on logging for buildings. April 26, 1858 after they moved and Severtsov.
Suddenly they were attacked kokandtsy - 15 people. Severtsov fired, but the gun misfired. Kokandets overtook him, and plunging the spear into the chest bone, removed it from the horse. Then drove the rest kokandtsy and prevented the murder, hoping to keep the prisoner alive for ransom.
Kokandtsy realized that their prisoner - a person very important, and took him to the city of Turkestan to their rulers - bek. After interrogation, he was locked in a room, "is very similar to prison, and even a bad prison. It took about a month. Russian authorities have demanded the release of the scientist, threatening military campaigns. Turkestan bey got scared and decided to let Severtsova. Out of fear that the prisoner does not make heavy moving, it began to intensively treated.
A month later, May 27, 1858, Severtsov returned to Fort Perovskii.
Health Severtsova gradually improved. He began to disassemble the collection, gradually ekskursiroval. So, he rose to the barge up the Syr Darya and Kuandare, and then investigated the salt lakes and Kultuz Arystuz in the Hungry Steppe.
September 1, 1858 Severtsov completed work in Central Asia and with a detachment left in Orenburg. Here he has made a written report on the expedition for the Academy of Sciences, all collections and materials sent to St. Petersburg, and he went to Voronezh Province dolechivatsya and see my family.
. So Sirdarya expedition, designed for two years, over 16 months
. Her program has been exceeded. On materials of the expedition was Severtsov maps of the Aral-Caspian steppes, described the topography, climate and vegetation of this region, said the process of desiccation of the Aral Sea and first identified the ancient border between the Caspian and Aral.
. At the end of 1859 Severtsov went to the Committee on the device of the Ural Cossack troops to pursue the study of a new district
. Land of the Ural Cossack troops - the right bank of the Urals - was visited by many scientists, but owing to the complex topography has been poorly studied.
In March 1860 Severtsov went to Uralsk. The duties he was charged with "natural-historical study of the earth Ural Cossacks". Severtsov repeatedly visited the city of Ufa, Orenburg, Uralsk and Guriev, explored the lake with the river Shalkar Solyanka mountains Big and Small Inder and adjacent to the Ural river areas. His work dominated by general geographic and economic-geographic research.
In 1863, with a detachment of General Chernyaeva Severtsov traveled between the rivers Chu and Syr Darya. With Kastekskogo Pass (Zailiysky Ridge) opened Severtsova grand panorama of the Tien-Shan Mountains. Severtsov visited the mountains Karatau. Inspected the Talas river basins and Chatkal, made many highland excursions, traveled around Shymkent, Pishpek (Bishkek), Aulie-Ata (Jambul). The focus was Severtsova Kirghiz ridge. It was here that first emerged in Severtsova idea of vertical zones - "belts.
After joining Russia Zachuyskogo Territory in 1865 was equipped expedition to the Tien-Shan. This almost unknown then the mountain range for height and inaccessibility called celestial mountains. Severtsova entrusted the leadership of the physical department. September 14, 1867 began the largest investigation of actual Tien Shan - a trip to the central part of it - on the Naryn and Aksai.
. Severtsov with a detachment of 15 men, conductors, two interpreters and 40 right-pointing arrow of the Faithful to the south of the river Turgenev (inflow or) to the Trans-Ili Alatau
. A Karachi-Bulak Pass approached the eastern end of Lake Issyk-Kul. Severtsov syrty crossed the snow in the south-westerly direction and after a few passes in early October again went to the Naryn, . then investigated the valleys of southern Al-Basha (the system of the Syr Darya) and Aksai (Tarim basin), and entered the south-western part of the ridge Kakshaal-Too,
. He was the first European past in this part of Central Tien-Shan. Finally come true a dream of many generations of scientists.
Next two months Severtsov held in Tashkent. Here he made friends with the artist in. V. Vereshchagin.
By the beginning of 1869 Severtsov returned to St. Petersburg. Moscow University Severtsova awarded a doctorate in zoology without defending a thesis.
. In 1873 there were published two of his books: "Arcara (mountain sheep) in Central Asia" and "Travels in Turkestan edge ..." In 1874, the Geographical Society in collaboration with the Society of Naturalists has equipped a large expedition to the lower reaches of the Amu Darya,
. These were the first Europeans (after the Khiva expedition), reshivshiesya cross Kizilkum summer. They approached the shore of the Aral Sea. Severtsova needed to verify the change in the shoreline of the Aral Sea in comparison with his observations in 1858, so within ten days of the detachment moved along the coast. Our road lay through the sands of the western part of the Kyzyl-Kum. Dolgikh 24 days detachment overcame harsh road between the mighty Central Asian rivers. Finally the participants felt the transition a welcoming freshness of the Amu Darya delta. Go back to the Syr Darya scientist again decided by Kum, but changing the route. In Fort Perovskii arrived on October 26. All the planned program was implemented.
Report Severtsova at the Paris Congress, "Traces of the ice period in the Tien Shan, was recognized as one of the best. His "Map of the heights of Inner Asia", exposed in the Russian pavilion at the exhibition, has attracted worldwide attention. Severtsov was awarded the highest award Congress, first class medal "For travel in Turkestan and the study of the Tien-Shan". Since that time the name Severtsova as a traveler, zoologist, geologist and geographer, was world famous.
The summer of 1877 was equipped complex Fergana Pamir Expedition. The route described Severtsov laconically: "... Shart Pass the Alai mountain ridge down to the Alai valley and through Zailiy ridge Kyzylart pass (4280 meters) out into the valley of the Kok-Sai ". The work of the expedition ended in early 1879, and the results have made a revolution in thinking about the Pamirs. Previously considered a direct continuation of the Pamir-Tien Shan. Severtsov first time proved that it is independent, self-mountain system.
. In this expedition was first used by the camera.
. Results Fergana-Pamir Expedition Severtsov were described in several articles and monumental work "orographic sketch of the Pamir mountain system."
. In 1878 the Geographical Society awarded the Medal Severtsova Litke, and in 1883 - Gold Medal Konstantinovskaya.
. January 26, 1885 Severtsov tragically died
. Horses do not hold out on the icy river, and the carriage in which he was riding landed in a large wormwood. Severtsov was buried in the old cemetery near his estate in his native Petrovsky.