JosöL de San Martö-n( National hero of Argentina)
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Biography JosöL de San Martö-n
eme wealthy landowners.
. In 1789, despite protests from parents, Jose enlisted in the Spanish royal army and went to his first trip - to Africa - to fight against the freedom of the Moors.
. As a teenager, San Martin met with the French republicans, who boldly challenged the whole monarchical Europe
. Revolutionary idea captivated the young officer of the Spanish Royal Army and soon began to sense his whole life.
. In 1800, 22-year-old Jose de San Martin took part in its fourth war, this time against Portugal, and distinguished himself in battle under Olivenza
. Two years later he fought at Gibraltar and the north of modern Morocco in the city of Ceuta, which in the next century, remained a Spanish colony. After that, San Martin served in the garrison of the seaside town of Cadiz in the infantry regiment of volunteers.
In 26 years, Jose de San Martin looked seasoned in war officer, knew her hardships and joy of victories. He repeatedly showed personal courage and learned to drive for him to attack soldiers. The art of war, he does not acknowledge in theory but in practice. Passion for the French revolutionary ideas has done its job.
The popular uprising swept much of Spain. Jose de San Martin was the commander of one of the guerrilla units in the south. In 1808, he participated in fierce battles against the French troops. For the capture of enemy positions on the heights under Arhoniley was promoted to captain Bourbon Regiment. Then his unit won the battle of Albueroy and participated in the battle of Baylene.
. For courage shown in battle Baylenskom July 19, 1808, San Martin was promoted to lieutenant.
. In 1811, Jose de San Martin learned of the May Revolution in Argentina, his homeland, which he vaguely remembered
. As Spain began to receive news of the revolutionary events in La Plata. The liberation movement had spread all the Spanish colonies in Latin America.
San Martin drove from Spain to England, thence to go home.
In Argentina, he was greeted with open arms. A week later he received the rank of colonel and began to form a squadron of Horse Guards. Soon, the squadron grew up in a regiment of mounted grenadiers of the Republican army, which is only beginning to emerge.
. In Buenos Aires, Colonel San Martin created the office of the Society of Lautaro ", which included patriotic statesmen and military commanders
. Jose de San Martin and his supporters have supported the "Patriotic Society" in the overthrow of the first triumvirate, has turned into an organ of the reactionary government.
. The new triumvirate consisting of Nicolas Rodriguez Peö¦a, . Antonio Alvarez Honcho and Huano Paso convened January 31, 1813 in Buenos Aires, the General Constituent Assembly, . which proclaimed the independence of the provinces of La Plata and approved a new law on citizenship,
. The country's name - the United Provinces of La Plata, national emblem, national anthem and flag - blue and white. Was to abolish slavery and the Tribunal of the Inquisition, and the instruments of torture were ordered publicly burned.
After the collapse of Napoleonic France, Spain began actively to solve the accumulated problems in its American colonies. Troops Patriots suffered several military defeats. In Quito, Caracas and Mexico City, dominated by Royalists - supporters of King Ferdinand VII. Spaniards completely restored its power in Chile and began preparing a military expedition against the United Provinces of La Plata. It is split: five provinces - Eastern shore, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Santa Fe and Cordoba refused to obey Carlos Alvear and formed the so-called Protectorate of Artigas.
. In such a complex situation intendant Governor of Cuyo Andes began to form an army
. For its content to make voluntary contributions, . courts have replaced the usual punishment indemnities, . Local Spaniards undertook to give a forced loan of $ 18 thousand pesos, . impose taxes on capital religious brotherhoods, . requisitioned monetary wealth monks merssdariev,
. The governor himself of his annual salary of 3 thousand pesos half gave "for the needs of the motherland."
General San Martin himself has developed a transition plan Liberation Army through the peaks of the Andes. He demanded the government to provide him with 4 thousand soldiers and 60 thousand pesos, as well as equip a squadron of warships to action along the Pacific coast of South America. The core of the Andean Army became the 11 th battalion of Allied Chile under the command of Las Heras, Mendoza sent to the Government of Buenos Aires. Soon, under the command of San Martin began to receive the new battalions, companies, squadrons and artillery.
January 19 Liberation Army of San Martin to march. Transition occurs simultaneously through several mountain passes. February 8, two main pillars of the Andean armies came together near the Chilean city of Chacabuco.
February 12, under this city occurred the first great battle of the Andean Spanish troops from the Army for the Liberation of Chile. The victory was won thanks to the talent of San Martin and his associate O'Higgensa, commanded an army of liberators, divided in a battle on two flanks.
February 14, 1817 Andean army triumphantly entered the Chilean capital of Santiago. The Assembly elected the country's supreme ruler of Chile, Bernardo O'Higgensa after the San Martin rejected a similar proposal. During national celebrations of his army officers were honorific titles of the Fathers homeland.
In early 1821 the army of General Jose de San Martin came close to Lima, the capital of the Spanish viceroys in America. In June of that year, the Viceroy La Serna withdrew its troops from the city and concentrate them in a mountainous region of the country. There they held out and not receiving assistance from Spain, until 1824, has not been destroyed by General Sucre from the army of Simon Bolivar.
Peru was declared an independent republic. Jose de San Martin was awarded the title of Protector of freedom of Peru, that is, became head of state. In July 1822 he met with Simon Bolivar, liberated from the Spanish northern part of South America. After the meeting, San Martin resigned from the tread and sailed from Lima to Santiago, Chile for a long time but did not stay. After receiving the news of the death of his wife he went to the Argentine city of Mendoza and three years later with her daughter leaves for Europe. There, he lived first in London, then in Brussels and in a Paris suburb.
. In his will the great liberator, the army chief of Peru, the captain-general of Chile, and Brigadier General of the Argentine Confederation of provinces banned arrange a solemn funeral
. Thirty years after his death, in May 1880, the remains of Jose de San Martin were transported to Buenos Aires.